Gauss’s law for magnetism

Tangential and normal field components

May 4, 2015 ece1229 No comments , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

[Click here for a PDF of this post with nicer formatting]

The integral forms of Maxwell’s equations can be used to derive relations for the tangential and normal field components to the sources. These relations were mentioned in class. It’s a little late, but lets go over the derivation. This isn’t all review from first year electromagnetism since we are now using a magnetic source modifications of Maxwell’s equations.

The derivation below follows that of [1] closely, but I am trying it myself to ensure that I understand the assumptions.

The two infinitesimally thin pillboxes of fig. 1, and fig. 2 are used in the argument.

pillboxForTangentialFieldsFig1

fig. 2: Pillboxes for tangential and normal field relations

pillboxForNormalFieldsFig2

fig. 1: Pillboxes for tangential and normal field relations

Maxwell’s equations with both magnetic and electric sources are

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:20}
\spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} = -\PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}}} -\boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:40}
\spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} = \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}} + \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{D}}}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:60}
\spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{D}} = \rho_\textrm{e}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:80}
\spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}} = \rho_\textrm{m}.
\end{equation}

After application of Stokes’ and the divergence theorems Maxwell’s equations have the integral form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:100}
\oint \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} \cdot d\Bl = -\int d\BA \cdot \lr{ \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}}} + \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}} }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:120}
\oint \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} \cdot d\Bl = \int d\BA \cdot \lr{ \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{D}}} + \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}} }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:140}
\int_{\partial V} \boldsymbol{\mathcal{D}} \cdot d\BA
=
\int_V \rho_\textrm{e}\,dV
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:160}
\int_{\partial V} \boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}} \cdot d\BA
=
\int_V \rho_\textrm{m}\,dV.
\end{equation}

Maxwell-Faraday equation

First consider one of the loop integrals, like \ref{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:100}. For an infinestismal loop, that integral is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:180}
\begin{aligned}
\oint \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} \cdot d\Bl
&\approx
\mathcal{E}^{(1)}_x \Delta x
+ \mathcal{E}^{(1)} \frac{\Delta y}{2}
+ \mathcal{E}^{(2)} \frac{\Delta y}{2}
-\mathcal{E}^{(2)}_x \Delta x
– \mathcal{E}^{(2)} \frac{\Delta y}{2}
– \mathcal{E}^{(1)} \frac{\Delta y}{2} \\
&\approx
\lr{ \mathcal{E}^{(1)}_x
-\mathcal{E}^{(2)}_x } \Delta x
+ \inv{2} \PD{x}{\mathcal{E}^{(2)}} \Delta x \Delta y
+ \inv{2} \PD{x}{\mathcal{E}^{(1)}} \Delta x \Delta y.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

We let \( \Delta y \rightarrow 0 \) which kills off all but the first difference term.

The RHS of \ref{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:180} is approximately

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:200}
-\int d\BA \cdot \lr{ \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}}} + \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}} }
\approx
– \Delta x \Delta y \lr{ \PD{t}{\mathcal{B}_z} + \mathcal{M}_z }.
\end{equation}

If the magnetic field contribution is assumed to be small in comparison to the magnetic current (i.e. infinite magnetic conductance), and if a linear magnetic current source of the form is also assumed

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:220}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}}_s = \lim_{\Delta y \rightarrow 0} \lr{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}} \cdot \zcap} \zcap \Delta y,
\end{equation}

then the Maxwell-Faraday equation takes the form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:240}
\lr{ \mathcal{E}^{(1)}_x
-\mathcal{E}^{(2)}_x } \Delta x
\approx
– \Delta x \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}}_s \cdot \zcap.
\end{equation}

While \( \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}} \) may have components that are not normal to the interface, the surface current need only have a normal component, since only that component contributes to the surface integral.

The coordinate expression of \ref{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:240} can be written as

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:260}
– \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}}_s \cdot \zcap
=
\lr{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}}^{(1)} -\boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}}^{(2)} } \cdot \lr{ \ycap \cross \zcap }
=
\lr{ \lr{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}}^{(1)} -\boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}}^{(2)} } \cross \ycap } \cdot \zcap.
\end{equation}

This is satisfied when

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:280}
\boxed{
\lr{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}}^{(1)} -\boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}}^{(2)} } \cross \ncap = – \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}}_s,
}
\end{equation}

where \( \ncap \) is the normal between the interfaces. I’d failed to understand when reading this derivation initially, how the \( \boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}} \) contribution was killed off. i.e. If the vanishing area in the surface integral kills off the \( \boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}} \) contribution, why do we have a \( \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}} \) contribution left. The key to this is understanding that this magnetic current is considered to be confined very closely to the surface getting larger as \( \Delta y \) gets smaller.

Also note that the units of \( \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}}_s \) are volts/meter like the electric field (not volts/squared-meter like \( \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}} \).)

Ampere’s law

As above, assume a linear electric surface current density of the form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:300}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}}_s = \lim_{\Delta y \rightarrow 0} \lr{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}} \cdot \ncap} \ncap \Delta y,
\end{equation}

in units of amperes/meter (not amperes/meter-squared like \( \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}} \).)

To apply the arguments above to Ampere’s law, only the sign needs to be adjusted

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:290}
\boxed{
\lr{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}}^{(1)} -\boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}}^{(2)} } \cross \ncap = \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}}_s.
}
\end{equation}

Gauss’s law

Using the cylindrical pillbox surface with radius \( \Delta r \), height \( \Delta y \), and top and bottom surface areas \( \Delta A = \pi \lr{\Delta r}^2 \), the LHS of Gauss’s law \ref{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:140} expands to

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:320}
\begin{aligned}
\int_{\partial V} \boldsymbol{\mathcal{D}} \cdot d\BA
&\approx
\mathcal{D}^{(2)}_y \Delta A
+ \mathcal{D}^{(2)}_\rho 2 \pi \Delta r \frac{\Delta y}{2}
+ \mathcal{D}^{(1)}_\rho 2 \pi \Delta r \frac{\Delta y}{2}
-\mathcal{D}^{(1)}_y \Delta A \\
&\approx
\lr{ \mathcal{D}^{(2)}_y
-\mathcal{D}^{(1)}_y } \Delta A.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

As with the Stokes integrals above it is assumed that the height is infinestimal with respect to the radial dimension. Letting that height \( \Delta y \rightarrow 0 \) kills off the radially directed contributions of the flux through the sidewalls.

The RHS expands to approximately

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:340}
\int_V \rho_\textrm{e}\,dV
\approx
\Delta A \Delta y \rho_\textrm{e}.
\end{equation}

Define a highly localized surface current density (coulombs/meter-squared) as

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:360}
\sigma_\textrm{e} = \lim_{\Delta y \rightarrow 0} \Delta y \rho_\textrm{e}.
\end{equation}

Equating \ref{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:340} with \ref{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:320} gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:380}
\lr{ \mathcal{D}^{(2)}_y
-\mathcal{D}^{(1)}_y } \Delta A
=
\Delta A \sigma_\textrm{e},
\end{equation}

or

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:400}
\boxed{
\lr{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{D}}^{(2)} – \boldsymbol{\mathcal{D}}^{(1)} } \cdot \ncap = \sigma_\textrm{e}.
}
\end{equation}

Gauss’s law for magnetism

The same argument can be applied to the magnetic flux. Define a highly localized magnetic surface current density (webers/meter-squared) as

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:440}
\sigma_\textrm{m} = \lim_{\Delta y \rightarrow 0} \Delta y \rho_\textrm{m},
\end{equation}

yielding the boundary relation

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:normalAndTangentialFields:420}
\boxed{
\lr{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}}^{(2)} – \boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}}^{(1)} } \cdot \ncap = \sigma_\textrm{m}.
}
\end{equation}

References

[1] Constantine A Balanis. Advanced engineering electromagnetics, volume 20, chapter Time-varying and time-harmonic electromagnetic fields. Wiley New York, 1989.

Maxwell’s equations in tensor form with magnetic sources

February 22, 2015 ece1229 No comments , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

[Click here for a PDF of this post with nicer formatting]

Following the principle that one should always relate new formalisms to things previously learned, I’d like to know what Maxwell’s equations look like in tensor form when magnetic sources are included. As a verification that the previous Geometric Algebra form of Maxwell’s equation that includes magnetic sources is correct, I’ll start with the GA form of Maxwell’s equation, find the tensor form, and then verify that the vector form of Maxwell’s equations can be recovered from the tensor form.

Tensor form

With four-vector potential \( A \), and bivector electromagnetic field \( F = \grad \wedge A \), the GA form of Maxwell’s equation is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:20}
\grad F = \frac{J}{\epsilon_0 c} + M I.
\end{equation}

The left hand side can be unpacked into vector and trivector terms \( \grad F = \grad \cdot F + \grad \wedge F \), which happens to also separate the sources nicely as a side effect

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:60}
\grad \cdot F = \frac{J}{\epsilon_0 c}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:80}
\grad \wedge F = M I.
\end{equation}

The electric source equation can be unpacked into tensor form by dotting with the four vector basis vectors. With the usual definition \( F^{\alpha \beta} = \partial^\alpha A^\beta – \partial^\beta A^\alpha \), that is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:100}
\begin{aligned}
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \grad \cdot F }
&=
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \grad \cdot \lr{ \grad \wedge A } } \\
&=
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \partial_\nu \cdot
\lr{ \gamma_\alpha \partial^\alpha \wedge \gamma_\beta A^\beta } } \\
&=
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \cdot \lr{ \gamma_\alpha \wedge \gamma_\beta
} } \partial_\nu \partial^\alpha A^\beta \\
&=
\inv{2}
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \cdot \lr{ \gamma_\alpha \wedge \gamma_\beta } }
\partial_\nu F^{\alpha \beta} \\
&=
\inv{2} \delta^{\nu \mu}_{[\alpha \beta]} \partial_\nu F^{\alpha \beta} \\
&=
\inv{2} \partial_\nu F^{\nu \mu}

\inv{2} \partial_\nu F^{\mu \nu} \\
&=
\partial_\nu F^{\nu \mu}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

So the first tensor equation is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:120}
\boxed{
\partial_\nu F^{\nu \mu} = \inv{c \epsilon_0} J^\mu.
}
\end{equation}

To unpack the magnetic source portion of Maxwell’s equation, put it first into dual form, so that it has four vectors on each side

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:140}
\begin{aligned}
M
&= – \lr{ \grad \wedge F} I \\
&= -\frac{1}{2} \lr{ \grad F + F \grad } I \\
&= -\frac{1}{2} \lr{ \grad F I – F I \grad } \\
&= – \grad \cdot \lr{ F I }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Dotting with \( \gamma^\mu \) gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:160}
\begin{aligned}
M^\mu
&= \gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \grad \cdot \lr{ – F I } } \\
&= \gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \partial_\nu \cdot \lr{ -\frac{1}{2}
\gamma^\alpha \wedge \gamma^\beta I F_{\alpha \beta} } } \\
&= -\inv{2}
\gpgradezero{
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\alpha \wedge \gamma^\beta I } }
}
\partial_\nu F_{\alpha \beta}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This scalar grade selection is a complete antisymmetrization of the indexes

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:180}
\begin{aligned}
\gpgradezero{
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\alpha \wedge \gamma^\beta I } }
}
&=
\gpgradezero{
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \cdot \lr{
\gamma^\alpha \gamma^\beta
\gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 \gamma_3
} }
} \\
&=
\gpgradezero{
\gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 \gamma_3
\gamma^\mu \gamma^\nu \gamma^\alpha \gamma^\beta
} \\
&=
\delta^{\mu \nu \alpha \beta}_{3 2 1 0} \\
&=
\epsilon^{\mu \nu \alpha \beta },
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

so the magnetic source portion of Maxwell’s equation, in tensor form, is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:200}
\boxed{
\inv{2} \epsilon^{\nu \alpha \beta \mu}
\partial_\nu F_{\alpha \beta}
=
M^\mu.
}
\end{equation}

Relating the tensor to the fields

The electromagnetic field has been identified with the electric and magnetic fields by

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:220}
F = \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} + c \mu_0 \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} I ,
\end{equation}

or in coordinates

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:240}
\inv{2} \gamma_\mu \wedge \gamma_\nu F^{\mu \nu}
= E^a \gamma_a \gamma_0 + c \mu_0 H^a \gamma_a \gamma_0 I.
\end{equation}

By forming the dot product sequence \( F^{\alpha \beta} = \gamma^\beta \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\alpha \cdot F } \), the electric and magnetic field components can be related to the tensor components. The electric field components follow by inspection and are

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:260}
E^b = \gamma^0 \cdot \lr{ \gamma^b \cdot F } = F^{b 0}.
\end{equation}

The magnetic field relation to the tensor components follow from

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:280}
\begin{aligned}
F^{r s}
&= F_{r s} \\
&= \gamma_s \cdot \lr{ \gamma_r \cdot \lr{ c \mu_0 H^a \gamma_a \gamma_0 I
} } \\
&=
c \mu_0 H^a \gpgradezero{ \gamma_s \gamma_r \gamma_a \gamma_0 I } \\
&=
c \mu_0 H^a \gpgradezero{ -\gamma^0 \gamma^1 \gamma^2 \gamma^3
\gamma_s \gamma_r \gamma_a \gamma_0 } \\
&=
c \mu_0 H^a \gpgradezero{ -\gamma^1 \gamma^2 \gamma^3
\gamma_s \gamma_r \gamma_a } \\
&=
– c \mu_0 H^a \delta^{[3 2 1]}_{s r a} \\
&=
c \mu_0 H^a \epsilon_{ s r a }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Expanding this for each pair of spacelike coordinates gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:320}
F^{1 2} = c \mu_0 H^3 \epsilon_{ 2 1 3 } = – c \mu_0 H^3
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:340}
F^{2 3} = c \mu_0 H^1 \epsilon_{ 3 2 1 } = – c \mu_0 H^1
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:360}
F^{3 1} = c \mu_0 H^2 \epsilon_{ 1 3 2 } = – c \mu_0 H^2,
\end{equation}

or

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:380}
\boxed{
\begin{aligned}
E^1 &= F^{1 0} \\
E^2 &= F^{2 0} \\
E^3 &= F^{3 0} \\
H^1 &= -\inv{c \mu_0} F^{2 3} \\
H^2 &= -\inv{c \mu_0} F^{3 1} \\
H^3 &= -\inv{c \mu_0} F^{1 2}.
\end{aligned}
}
\end{equation}

Recover the vector equations from the tensor equations

Starting with the non-dual Maxwell tensor equation, expanding the timelike index gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:480}
\begin{aligned}
\inv{c \epsilon_0} J^0
&= \inv{\epsilon_0} \rho \\
&=
\partial_\nu F^{\nu 0} \\
&=
\partial_1 F^{1 0}
+\partial_2 F^{2 0}
+\partial_3 F^{3 0}
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This is Gauss’s law

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:500}
\boxed{
\spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}}
=
\rho/\epsilon_0.
}
\end{equation}

For a spacelike index, any one is representive. Expanding index 1 gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:520}
\begin{aligned}
\inv{c \epsilon_0} J^1
&= \partial_\nu F^{\nu 1} \\
&= \inv{c} \partial_t F^{0 1}
+ \partial_2 F^{2 1}
+ \partial_3 F^{3 1} \\
&= -\inv{c} E^1
+ \partial_2 (c \mu_0 H^3)
+ \partial_3 (-c \mu_0 H^2) \\
&=
\lr{ -\inv{c} \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}}} + c \mu_0 \spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} } \cdot \Be_1.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Extending this to the other indexes and multiplying through by \( \epsilon_0 c \) recovers the Ampere-Maxwell equation (assuming linear media)

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:540}
\boxed{
\spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} = \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}} + \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{D}}}.
}
\end{equation}

The expansion of the 0th free (timelike) index of the dual Maxwell tensor equation is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:400}
\begin{aligned}
M^0
&=
\inv{2} \epsilon^{\nu \alpha \beta 0}
\partial_\nu F_{\alpha \beta} \\
&=
-\inv{2} \epsilon^{0 \nu \alpha \beta}
\partial_\nu F_{\alpha \beta} \\
&=
-\inv{2}
\lr{
\partial_1 (F_{2 3} – F_{3 2})
+\partial_2 (F_{3 1} – F_{1 3})
+\partial_3 (F_{1 2} – F_{2 1})
} \\
&=

\lr{
\partial_1 F_{2 3}
+\partial_2 F_{3 1}
+\partial_3 F_{1 2}
} \\
&=

\lr{
\partial_1 (- c \mu_0 H^1 ) +
\partial_2 (- c \mu_0 H^2 ) +
\partial_3 (- c \mu_0 H^3 )
},
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

but \( M^0 = c \rho_m \), giving us Gauss’s law for magnetism (with magnetic charge density included)

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:420}
\boxed{
\spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} = \rho_m/\mu_0.
}
\end{equation}

For the spacelike indexes of the dual Maxwell equation, only one need be computed (say 1), and cyclic permutation will provide the rest. That is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:440}
\begin{aligned}
M^1
&= \inv{2} \epsilon^{\nu \alpha \beta 1} \partial_\nu F_{\alpha \beta} \\
&=
\inv{2} \lr{ \partial_2 \lr{F_{3 0} – F_{0 3}} }
+\inv{2} \lr{ \partial_3 \lr{F_{0 2} – F_{0 2}} }
+\inv{2} \lr{ \partial_0 \lr{F_{2 3} – F_{3 2}} } \\
&=
– \partial_2 F^{3 0}
+ \partial_3 F^{2 0}
+ \partial_0 F_{2 3} \\
&=
-\partial_2 E^3 + \partial_3 E^2 + \inv{c} \PD{t}{} \lr{ – c \mu_0 H^1 } \\
&= – \lr{ \spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} + \mu_0 \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}}} } \cdot \Be_1.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Extending this to the rest of the coordinates gives the Maxwell-Faraday equation (as extended to include magnetic current density sources)

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:460}
\boxed{
\spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} = -\boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}} – \mu_0 \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}}}.
}
\end{equation}

This takes things full circle, going from the vector differential Maxwell’s equations, to the Geometric Algebra form of Maxwell’s equation, to Maxwell’s equations in tensor form, and back to the vector form. Not only is the tensor form of Maxwell’s equations with magnetic sources now known, the translation from the tensor and vector formalism has also been verified, and miraculously no signs or factors of 2 were lost or gained in the process.