magnetic charge density

Maxwell equation boundary conditions in media

September 10, 2016 math and physics play No comments , , , , , , , , ,

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Following [1], Maxwell’s equations in media, including both electric and magnetic sources and currents are

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:40}
\spacegrad \cross \BE = -\BM – \partial_t \BB
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:60}
\spacegrad \cross \BH = \BJ + \partial_t \BD
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:80}
\spacegrad \cdot \BD = \rho
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:100}
\spacegrad \cdot \BB = \rho_{\textrm{m}}
\end{equation}

In general, it is not possible to assemble these into a single Geometric Algebra equation unless specific assumptions about the permeabilities are made, but we can still use Geometric Algebra to examine the boundary condition question. First, these equations can be expressed in a more natural multivector form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:140}
\spacegrad \wedge \BE = -I \lr{ \BM + \partial_t \BB }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:160}
\spacegrad \wedge \BH = I \lr{ \BJ + \partial_t \BD }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:180}
\spacegrad \cdot \BD = \rho
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:200}
\spacegrad \cdot \BB = \rho_{\textrm{m}}
\end{equation}

Then duality relations can be used on the divergences to write all four equations in their curl form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:240}
\spacegrad \wedge \BE = -I \lr{ \BM + \partial_t \BB }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:260}
\spacegrad \wedge \BH = I \lr{ \BJ + \partial_t \BD }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:280}
\spacegrad \wedge (I\BD) = \rho I
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:300}
\spacegrad \wedge (I\BB) = \rho_{\textrm{m}} I.
\end{equation}

Now it is possible to employ Stokes theorem to each of these. The usual procedure is to both use the loops of fig. 2 and the pillbox of fig. 1, where in both cases the height is made infinitesimal.

boundaryConditionsTwoSurfacesFig1

fig 1. Two surfaces normal to the interface.

boundaryConditionsPillBoxFig2

fig 2. A pillbox volume encompassing the interface.

With all these relations expressed in curl form as above, we can use just the pillbox configuration to evaluate the Stokes integrals.
Let the height \( h \) be measured along the normal axis, and assume that all the charges and currents are localized to the surface

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:320}
\begin{aligned}
\BM &= \BM_{\textrm{s}} \delta( h ) \\
\BJ &= \BJ_{\textrm{s}} \delta( h ) \\
\rho &= \rho_{\textrm{s}} \delta( h ) \\
\rho_{\textrm{m}} &= \rho_{\textrm{m}\textrm{s}} \delta( h ),
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

we can enumerate the Stokes integrals \( \int d^3 \Bx \cdot \lr{ \spacegrad \wedge \BX } = \oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot \BX \). The three-volume area element will be written as \( d^3 \Bx = d^2 \Bx \wedge \ncap dh \), giving

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:360}
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot \BE = -\int (d^2 \Bx \wedge \ncap) \cdot \lr{ I \BM_{\textrm{s}} + \partial_t I \BB \Delta h}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:380}
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot \BH = \int (d^2 \Bx \wedge \ncap) \cdot \lr{ I \BJ_{\textrm{s}} + \partial_t I \BD \Delta h}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:400}
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot (I\BD) = \int (d^2 \Bx \wedge \ncap) \cdot \lr{ \rho_{\textrm{s}} I }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:420}
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot (I\BB) = \int (d^2 \Bx \wedge \ncap) \cdot \lr{ \rho_{\textrm{m}\textrm{s}} I }
\end{equation}

In the limit with \( \Delta h \rightarrow 0 \), the LHS integrals are reduced to just the top and bottom surfaces, and the \( \Delta h \) contributions on the RHS are eliminated. With \( i = I \ncap \), and \( d^2 \Bx = dA\, i \) on the top surface, we are left with

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:460}
0 = \int dA \lr{ i \cdot \Delta \BE + I \cdot \lr{ I \BM_{\textrm{s}} } }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:480}
0 = \int dA \lr{ i \cdot \Delta \BH – I \cdot \lr{ I \BJ_{\textrm{s}} } }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:500}
0 = \int dA \lr{ i \cdot \Delta (I\BD) + \rho_{\textrm{s}} }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:520}
0 = \int dA \lr{ i \cdot \Delta (I\BB) + \rho_{\textrm{m}\textrm{s}} }
\end{equation}

Consider the first integral. Any component of \( \BE \) that is normal to the plane of the pillbox top (or bottom) has no contribution to the integral, so this constraint is one that effects only the tangential components \( \ncap (\ncap \wedge (\Delta \BE)) \). Writing out the vector portion of the integrand, we have

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:540}
\begin{aligned}
i \cdot \Delta \BE + I \cdot \lr{ I \BM_{\textrm{s}} }
&=
\gpgradeone{ i \Delta \BE + I^2 \BM_{\textrm{s}} } \\
&=
\gpgradeone{ I \ncap \Delta \BE – \BM_{\textrm{s}} } \\
&=
\gpgradeone{ I \ncap \ncap (\ncap \wedge \Delta \BE) – \BM_{\textrm{s}} } \\
&=
\gpgradeone{ I (\ncap \wedge (\Delta \BE)) – \BM_{\textrm{s}} } \\
&=
\gpgradeone{ -\ncap \cross (\Delta \BE) – \BM_{\textrm{s}} }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The dot product (a scalar) in the two surface charge integrals can also be reduced

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:560}
\begin{aligned}
i \cdot \Delta (I\BD)
&=
\gpgradezero{ i \Delta (I\BD) } \\
&=
\gpgradezero{ I \ncap \Delta (I\BD) } \\
&=
\gpgradezero{ -\ncap \Delta \BD } \\
&=
-\ncap \cdot \Delta \BD,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

so the integral equations are satisfied provided

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:580}
\boxed{
\begin{aligned}
\ncap \cross (\BE_2 – \BE_1) &= – \BM_{\textrm{s}} \\
\ncap \cross (\BH_2 – \BH_1) &= \BJ_{\textrm{s}} \\
\ncap \cdot (\BD_2 – \BD_1) &= \rho_{\textrm{s}} \\
\ncap \cdot (\BB_2 – \BB_1) &= \rho_{\textrm{m}\textrm{s}}.
\end{aligned}
}
\end{equation}

It is tempting to try to assemble these into a results expressed in terms of a four-vector surface current and composite STA bivector fields like the \( F = \BE + I c \BB \) that we can use for the free space Maxwell’s equation. Dimensionally, we need something with velocity in that mix, but what velocity should be used when the speed of the field propagation in each media is potentially different?

References

[1] Constantine A Balanis. Advanced engineering electromagnetics. Wiley New York, 1989.

Updated notes for ece1229 antenna theory

March 16, 2015 ece1229 No comments , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

I’ve now posted a first update of my notes for the antenna theory course that I am taking this term at UofT.

Unlike most of the other classes I have taken, I am not attempting to take comprehensive notes for this class. The class is taught on slides which go by faster than I can easily take notes for (and some of which match the textbook closely). In class I have annotated my copy of textbook with little details instead. This set of notes contains musings of details that were unclear, or in some cases, details that were provided in class, but are not in the text (and too long to pencil into my book), as well as some notes Geometric Algebra formalism for Maxwell’s equations with magnetic sources (something I’ve encountered for the first time in any real detail in this class).

The notes compilation linked above includes all of the following separate notes, some of which have been posted separately on this blog:

Maxwell’s equations in tensor form with magnetic sources

February 22, 2015 ece1229 No comments , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

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Following the principle that one should always relate new formalisms to things previously learned, I’d like to know what Maxwell’s equations look like in tensor form when magnetic sources are included. As a verification that the previous Geometric Algebra form of Maxwell’s equation that includes magnetic sources is correct, I’ll start with the GA form of Maxwell’s equation, find the tensor form, and then verify that the vector form of Maxwell’s equations can be recovered from the tensor form.

Tensor form

With four-vector potential \( A \), and bivector electromagnetic field \( F = \grad \wedge A \), the GA form of Maxwell’s equation is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:20}
\grad F = \frac{J}{\epsilon_0 c} + M I.
\end{equation}

The left hand side can be unpacked into vector and trivector terms \( \grad F = \grad \cdot F + \grad \wedge F \), which happens to also separate the sources nicely as a side effect

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:60}
\grad \cdot F = \frac{J}{\epsilon_0 c}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:80}
\grad \wedge F = M I.
\end{equation}

The electric source equation can be unpacked into tensor form by dotting with the four vector basis vectors. With the usual definition \( F^{\alpha \beta} = \partial^\alpha A^\beta – \partial^\beta A^\alpha \), that is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:100}
\begin{aligned}
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \grad \cdot F }
&=
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \grad \cdot \lr{ \grad \wedge A } } \\
&=
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \partial_\nu \cdot
\lr{ \gamma_\alpha \partial^\alpha \wedge \gamma_\beta A^\beta } } \\
&=
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \cdot \lr{ \gamma_\alpha \wedge \gamma_\beta
} } \partial_\nu \partial^\alpha A^\beta \\
&=
\inv{2}
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \cdot \lr{ \gamma_\alpha \wedge \gamma_\beta } }
\partial_\nu F^{\alpha \beta} \\
&=
\inv{2} \delta^{\nu \mu}_{[\alpha \beta]} \partial_\nu F^{\alpha \beta} \\
&=
\inv{2} \partial_\nu F^{\nu \mu}

\inv{2} \partial_\nu F^{\mu \nu} \\
&=
\partial_\nu F^{\nu \mu}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

So the first tensor equation is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:120}
\boxed{
\partial_\nu F^{\nu \mu} = \inv{c \epsilon_0} J^\mu.
}
\end{equation}

To unpack the magnetic source portion of Maxwell’s equation, put it first into dual form, so that it has four vectors on each side

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:140}
\begin{aligned}
M
&= – \lr{ \grad \wedge F} I \\
&= -\frac{1}{2} \lr{ \grad F + F \grad } I \\
&= -\frac{1}{2} \lr{ \grad F I – F I \grad } \\
&= – \grad \cdot \lr{ F I }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Dotting with \( \gamma^\mu \) gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:160}
\begin{aligned}
M^\mu
&= \gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \grad \cdot \lr{ – F I } } \\
&= \gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \partial_\nu \cdot \lr{ -\frac{1}{2}
\gamma^\alpha \wedge \gamma^\beta I F_{\alpha \beta} } } \\
&= -\inv{2}
\gpgradezero{
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\alpha \wedge \gamma^\beta I } }
}
\partial_\nu F_{\alpha \beta}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This scalar grade selection is a complete antisymmetrization of the indexes

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:180}
\begin{aligned}
\gpgradezero{
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\alpha \wedge \gamma^\beta I } }
}
&=
\gpgradezero{
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \cdot \lr{
\gamma^\alpha \gamma^\beta
\gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 \gamma_3
} }
} \\
&=
\gpgradezero{
\gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 \gamma_3
\gamma^\mu \gamma^\nu \gamma^\alpha \gamma^\beta
} \\
&=
\delta^{\mu \nu \alpha \beta}_{3 2 1 0} \\
&=
\epsilon^{\mu \nu \alpha \beta },
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

so the magnetic source portion of Maxwell’s equation, in tensor form, is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:200}
\boxed{
\inv{2} \epsilon^{\nu \alpha \beta \mu}
\partial_\nu F_{\alpha \beta}
=
M^\mu.
}
\end{equation}

Relating the tensor to the fields

The electromagnetic field has been identified with the electric and magnetic fields by

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:220}
F = \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} + c \mu_0 \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} I ,
\end{equation}

or in coordinates

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:240}
\inv{2} \gamma_\mu \wedge \gamma_\nu F^{\mu \nu}
= E^a \gamma_a \gamma_0 + c \mu_0 H^a \gamma_a \gamma_0 I.
\end{equation}

By forming the dot product sequence \( F^{\alpha \beta} = \gamma^\beta \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\alpha \cdot F } \), the electric and magnetic field components can be related to the tensor components. The electric field components follow by inspection and are

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:260}
E^b = \gamma^0 \cdot \lr{ \gamma^b \cdot F } = F^{b 0}.
\end{equation}

The magnetic field relation to the tensor components follow from

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:280}
\begin{aligned}
F^{r s}
&= F_{r s} \\
&= \gamma_s \cdot \lr{ \gamma_r \cdot \lr{ c \mu_0 H^a \gamma_a \gamma_0 I
} } \\
&=
c \mu_0 H^a \gpgradezero{ \gamma_s \gamma_r \gamma_a \gamma_0 I } \\
&=
c \mu_0 H^a \gpgradezero{ -\gamma^0 \gamma^1 \gamma^2 \gamma^3
\gamma_s \gamma_r \gamma_a \gamma_0 } \\
&=
c \mu_0 H^a \gpgradezero{ -\gamma^1 \gamma^2 \gamma^3
\gamma_s \gamma_r \gamma_a } \\
&=
– c \mu_0 H^a \delta^{[3 2 1]}_{s r a} \\
&=
c \mu_0 H^a \epsilon_{ s r a }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Expanding this for each pair of spacelike coordinates gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:320}
F^{1 2} = c \mu_0 H^3 \epsilon_{ 2 1 3 } = – c \mu_0 H^3
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:340}
F^{2 3} = c \mu_0 H^1 \epsilon_{ 3 2 1 } = – c \mu_0 H^1
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:360}
F^{3 1} = c \mu_0 H^2 \epsilon_{ 1 3 2 } = – c \mu_0 H^2,
\end{equation}

or

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:380}
\boxed{
\begin{aligned}
E^1 &= F^{1 0} \\
E^2 &= F^{2 0} \\
E^3 &= F^{3 0} \\
H^1 &= -\inv{c \mu_0} F^{2 3} \\
H^2 &= -\inv{c \mu_0} F^{3 1} \\
H^3 &= -\inv{c \mu_0} F^{1 2}.
\end{aligned}
}
\end{equation}

Recover the vector equations from the tensor equations

Starting with the non-dual Maxwell tensor equation, expanding the timelike index gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:480}
\begin{aligned}
\inv{c \epsilon_0} J^0
&= \inv{\epsilon_0} \rho \\
&=
\partial_\nu F^{\nu 0} \\
&=
\partial_1 F^{1 0}
+\partial_2 F^{2 0}
+\partial_3 F^{3 0}
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This is Gauss’s law

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:500}
\boxed{
\spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}}
=
\rho/\epsilon_0.
}
\end{equation}

For a spacelike index, any one is representive. Expanding index 1 gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:520}
\begin{aligned}
\inv{c \epsilon_0} J^1
&= \partial_\nu F^{\nu 1} \\
&= \inv{c} \partial_t F^{0 1}
+ \partial_2 F^{2 1}
+ \partial_3 F^{3 1} \\
&= -\inv{c} E^1
+ \partial_2 (c \mu_0 H^3)
+ \partial_3 (-c \mu_0 H^2) \\
&=
\lr{ -\inv{c} \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}}} + c \mu_0 \spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} } \cdot \Be_1.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Extending this to the other indexes and multiplying through by \( \epsilon_0 c \) recovers the Ampere-Maxwell equation (assuming linear media)

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:540}
\boxed{
\spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} = \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}} + \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{D}}}.
}
\end{equation}

The expansion of the 0th free (timelike) index of the dual Maxwell tensor equation is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:400}
\begin{aligned}
M^0
&=
\inv{2} \epsilon^{\nu \alpha \beta 0}
\partial_\nu F_{\alpha \beta} \\
&=
-\inv{2} \epsilon^{0 \nu \alpha \beta}
\partial_\nu F_{\alpha \beta} \\
&=
-\inv{2}
\lr{
\partial_1 (F_{2 3} – F_{3 2})
+\partial_2 (F_{3 1} – F_{1 3})
+\partial_3 (F_{1 2} – F_{2 1})
} \\
&=

\lr{
\partial_1 F_{2 3}
+\partial_2 F_{3 1}
+\partial_3 F_{1 2}
} \\
&=

\lr{
\partial_1 (- c \mu_0 H^1 ) +
\partial_2 (- c \mu_0 H^2 ) +
\partial_3 (- c \mu_0 H^3 )
},
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

but \( M^0 = c \rho_m \), giving us Gauss’s law for magnetism (with magnetic charge density included)

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:420}
\boxed{
\spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} = \rho_m/\mu_0.
}
\end{equation}

For the spacelike indexes of the dual Maxwell equation, only one need be computed (say 1), and cyclic permutation will provide the rest. That is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:440}
\begin{aligned}
M^1
&= \inv{2} \epsilon^{\nu \alpha \beta 1} \partial_\nu F_{\alpha \beta} \\
&=
\inv{2} \lr{ \partial_2 \lr{F_{3 0} – F_{0 3}} }
+\inv{2} \lr{ \partial_3 \lr{F_{0 2} – F_{0 2}} }
+\inv{2} \lr{ \partial_0 \lr{F_{2 3} – F_{3 2}} } \\
&=
– \partial_2 F^{3 0}
+ \partial_3 F^{2 0}
+ \partial_0 F_{2 3} \\
&=
-\partial_2 E^3 + \partial_3 E^2 + \inv{c} \PD{t}{} \lr{ – c \mu_0 H^1 } \\
&= – \lr{ \spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} + \mu_0 \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}}} } \cdot \Be_1.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Extending this to the rest of the coordinates gives the Maxwell-Faraday equation (as extended to include magnetic current density sources)

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:460}
\boxed{
\spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} = -\boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}} – \mu_0 \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}}}.
}
\end{equation}

This takes things full circle, going from the vector differential Maxwell’s equations, to the Geometric Algebra form of Maxwell’s equation, to Maxwell’s equations in tensor form, and back to the vector form. Not only is the tensor form of Maxwell’s equations with magnetic sources now known, the translation from the tensor and vector formalism has also been verified, and miraculously no signs or factors of 2 were lost or gained in the process.