pseudoscalar

A comparison of Geometric Algebra electrodynamic potential methods

January 7, 2017 math and physics play No comments , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

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Motivation

Geometric algebra (GA) allows for a compact description of Maxwell’s equations in either an explicit 3D representation or a STA (SpaceTime Algebra [2]) representation. The 3D GA and STA representations Maxwell’s equation both the form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1280}
L \boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = J,
\end{equation}

where \( J \) represents the sources, \( L \) is a multivector gradient operator that includes partial derivative operator components for each of the space and time coordinates, and

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1020}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} + \eta I \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}},
\end{equation}

is an electromagnetic field multivector, \( I = \Be_1 \Be_2 \Be_3 \) is the \R{3} pseudoscalar, and \( \eta = \sqrt{\mu/\epsilon} \) is the impedance of the media.

When Maxwell’s equations are extended to include magnetic sources in addition to conventional electric sources (as used in antenna-theory [1] and microwave engineering [3]), they take the form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:chapter3Notes:20}
\spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} = – \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}} – \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}}}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:chapter3Notes:40}
\spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} = \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}} + \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{D}}}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:chapter3Notes:60}
\spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{D}} = q_{\textrm{e}}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:chapter3Notes:80}
\spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}} = q_{\textrm{m}}.
\end{equation}

The corresponding GA Maxwell equations in their respective 3D and STA forms are

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:300}
\lr{ \spacegrad + \inv{v} \PD{t}{} } \boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}}
=
\eta
\lr{ v q_{\textrm{e}} – \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}} }
+ I \lr{ v q_{\textrm{m}} – \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}} }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:320}
\grad \boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = \eta J – I M,
\end{equation}

where the wave group velocity in the medium is \( v = 1/\sqrt{\epsilon\mu} \), and the medium is isotropic with
\( \boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}} = \mu \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} \), and \( \boldsymbol{\mathcal{D}} = \epsilon \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} \). In the STA representation, \( \grad, J, M \) are all four-vectors, the specific meanings of which will be spelled out below.

How to determine the potential equations and the field representation using the conventional distinct Maxwell’s \ref{eqn:chapter3Notes:20}, … is well known. The basic procedure is to consider the electric and magnetic sources in turn, and observe that in each case one of the electric or magnetic fields must have a curl representation. The STA approach is similar, except that it can be observed that the field must have a four-curl representation for each type of source. In the explicit 3D GA formalism
\ref{eqn:potentialMethods:300} how to formulate a natural potential representation is not as obvious. There is no longer an reason to set any component of the field equal to a curl, and the representation of the four curl from the STA approach is awkward. Additionally, it is not obvious what form gauge invariance takes in the 3D GA representation.

Ideas explored in these notes

  • GA representation of Maxwell’s equations including magnetic sources.
  • STA GA formalism for Maxwell’s equations including magnetic sources.
  • Explicit form of the GA potential representation including both electric and magnetic sources.
  • Demonstration of exactly how the 3D and STA potentials are related.
  • Explore the structure of gauge transformations when magnetic sources are included.
  • Explore the structure of gauge transformations in the 3D GA formalism.
  • Specify the form of the Lorentz gauge in the 3D GA formalism.

Traditional vector algebra

No magnetic sources

When magnetic sources are omitted, it follows from \ref{eqn:chapter3Notes:80} that there is some \( \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} \) for which

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:20}
\boxed{
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}} = \spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}},
}
\end{equation}

Substitution into Faraday’s law \ref{eqn:chapter3Notes:20} gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:40}
\spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} = – \PD{t}{}\lr{ \spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} },
\end{equation}

or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:60}
\spacegrad \cross \lr{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} + \PD{t}{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} } } = 0.
\end{equation}

A gradient representation of this curled quantity, say \( -\spacegrad \phi \), will provide the required zero

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:80}
\boxed{
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} = -\spacegrad \phi -\PD{t}{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} }.
}
\end{equation}

The final two Maxwell equations yield

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:100}
\begin{aligned}
-\spacegrad^2 \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} + \spacegrad \lr{ \spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} } &= \mu \lr{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}} + \epsilon \PD{t}{} \lr{ -\spacegrad \phi -\PD{t}{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} } } } \\
\spacegrad \cdot \lr{ -\spacegrad \phi -\PD{t}{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} } } &= q_e/\epsilon,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:120}
\boxed{
\begin{aligned}
\spacegrad^2 \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} – \inv{v^2} \PDSq{t}{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} }
– \spacegrad \lr{
\inv{v^2} \PD{t}{\phi}
+\spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}}
}
&= -\mu \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}} \\
\spacegrad^2 \phi + \PD{t}{} \lr{ \spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} } &= -q_e/\epsilon.
\end{aligned}
}
\end{equation}

Note that the Lorentz condition \( \PDi{t}{(\phi/v^2)} + \spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} = 0 \) can be imposed to decouple these, leaving non-homogeneous wave equations for the vector and scalar potentials respectively.

No electric sources

Without electric sources, a curl representation of the electric field can be assumed, satisfying Gauss’s law

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:140}
\boxed{
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{D}} = – \spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}.
}
\end{equation}

Substitution into the Maxwell-Faraday law gives
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:160}
\spacegrad \cross \lr{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} + \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}} } = 0.
\end{equation}

This is satisfied with any gradient, say, \( -\spacegrad \phi_m \), providing a potential representation for the magnetic field

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:180}
\boxed{
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} = -\spacegrad \phi_m – \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}}.
}
\end{equation}

The remaining Maxwell equations provide the required constraints on the potentials

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:220}
-\spacegrad^2 \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} + \spacegrad \lr{ \spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} } = -\epsilon
\lr{
-\boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}} – \mu \PD{t}{}
\lr{
-\spacegrad \phi_m – \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}}
}
}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:240}
\spacegrad \cdot
\lr{
-\spacegrad \phi_m – \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}}
}
= \inv{\mu} q_m,
\end{equation}

or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:260}
\boxed{
\begin{aligned}
\spacegrad^2 \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} – \inv{v^2} \PDSq{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}} – \spacegrad \lr{ \inv{v^2} \PD{t}{\phi_m} + \spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} } &= -\epsilon \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}} \\
\spacegrad^2 \phi_m + \PD{t}{}\lr{ \spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} } &= -\inv{\mu} q_m.
\end{aligned}
}
\end{equation}

The general solution to Maxwell’s equations is therefore
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:280}
\begin{aligned}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} &=
-\spacegrad \phi -\PD{t}{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} }
– \inv{\epsilon} \spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} \\
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} &=
\inv{\mu} \spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}}
-\spacegrad \phi_m – \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}},
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

subject to the constraints \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:120} and \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:260}.

Potential operator structure

Knowing that there is a simple underlying structure to the potential representation of the electromagnetic field in the STA formalism inspires the question of whether that structure can be found directly using the scalar and vector potentials determined above.

Specifically, what is the multivector representation \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:1020} of the electromagnetic field in terms of all the individual potential variables, and can an underlying structure for that field representation be found? The composite field is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:280b}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}}
=
-\spacegrad \phi -\PD{t}{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} }
– \inv{\epsilon} \spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} \\
+ I \eta
\lr{
\inv{\mu} \spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}}
-\spacegrad \phi_m – \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}}
}.
\end{equation}

Can this be factored into into multivector operator and multivector potentials? Expanding the cross products provides some direction

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1040}
\begin{aligned}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}}
&=
– \PD{t}{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} }
– \eta \PD{t}{I \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}}
– \spacegrad \lr{ \phi – \eta I \phi_m } \\
&\quad + \frac{\eta}{2 \mu} \lr{ \rspacegrad \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} – \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} \lspacegrad }
+ \frac{1}{2 \epsilon} \lr{ \rspacegrad I \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} – I \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} \lspacegrad }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Observe that the
gradient and the time partials can be grouped together

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1060}
\begin{aligned}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}}
&=
– \PD{t}{ } \lr{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} + \eta I \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}}
– \spacegrad \lr{ \phi + \eta I \phi_m }
+ \frac{v}{2} \lr{ \rspacegrad (\boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} + I \eta \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}) – (\boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} + I \eta \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}) \lspacegrad } \\
&=
\inv{2} \lr{
\lr{ \rspacegrad – \inv{v} {\stackrel{ \rightarrow }{\partial_t}} } \lr{ v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} + \eta v I \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} }

\lr{ v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} + \eta v I \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}} \lr{ \lspacegrad + \inv{v} {\stackrel{ \leftarrow }{\partial_t}} }
} \\
&+\quad \inv{2} \lr{
\lr{ \rspacegrad – \inv{v} {\stackrel{ \rightarrow }{\partial_t}} } \lr{ -\phi – \eta I \phi_m }
– \lr{ \phi + \eta I \phi_m } \lr{ \lspacegrad + \inv{v} {\stackrel{ \leftarrow }{\partial_t}} }
}
,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

or

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1080}
\boxed{
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}}
=
\inv{2} \Biglr{
\lr{ \rspacegrad – \inv{v} {\stackrel{ \rightarrow }{\partial_t}} }
\lr{
– \phi
+ v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}}
+ \eta I v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}
– \eta I \phi_m
}

\lr{
\phi
+ v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}}
+ \eta I v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}
+ \eta I \phi_m
}
\lr{ \lspacegrad + \inv{v} {\stackrel{ \leftarrow }{\partial_t}} }
}
.
}
\end{equation}

There’s a conjugate structure to the potential on each side of the curl operation where we see a sign change for the scalar and pseudoscalar elements only. The reason for this becomes more clear in the STA formalism.

Potentials in the STA formalism.

Maxwell’s equation in its explicit 3D form \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:300} can be
converted to STA form, by introducing a four-vector basis \( \setlr{ \gamma_\mu } \), where the spatial basis
\( \setlr{ \Be_k = \gamma_k \gamma_0 } \)
is expressed in terms of the Dirac basis \( \setlr{ \gamma_\mu } \).
By multiplying from the left with \( \gamma_0 \) a STA form of Maxwell’s equation
\ref{eqn:potentialMethods:320}
is obtained,
where
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:340}
\begin{aligned}
J &= \gamma^\mu J_\mu = ( v q_e, \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}} ) \\
M &= \gamma^\mu M_\mu = ( v q_m, \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}} ) \\
\grad &= \gamma^\mu \partial_\mu = ( (1/v) \partial_t, \spacegrad ) \\
I &= \gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 \gamma_3,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Here the metric choice is \( \gamma_0^2 = 1 = -\gamma_k^2 \). Note that in this representation the electromagnetic field \( \boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} + \eta I \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} \) is a bivector, not a multivector as it is explicit (frame dependent) 3D representation of \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:300}.

A potential representation can be obtained as before by considering electric and magnetic sources in sequence and using superposition to assemble a complete potential.

No magnetic sources

Without magnetic sources, Maxwell’s equation splits into vector and trivector terms of the form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:380}
\grad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = \eta J
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:400}
\grad \wedge \boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = 0.
\end{equation}

A four-vector curl representation of the field will satisfy \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:400} allowing an immediate potential solution

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:560}
\boxed{
\begin{aligned}
&\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = \grad \wedge {A^{\mathrm{e}}} \\
&\grad^2 {A^{\mathrm{e}}} – \grad \lr{ \grad \cdot {A^{\mathrm{e}}} } = \eta J.
\end{aligned}
}
\end{equation}

This can be put into correspondence with \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:120} by noting that

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:460}
\begin{aligned}
\grad^2 &= (\gamma^\mu \partial_\mu) \cdot (\gamma^\nu \partial_\nu) = \inv{v^2} \partial_{tt} – \spacegrad^2 \\
\gamma_0 {A^{\mathrm{e}}} &= \gamma_0 \gamma^\mu {A^{\mathrm{e}}}_\mu = {A^{\mathrm{e}}}_0 + \Be_k {A^{\mathrm{e}}}_k = {A^{\mathrm{e}}}_0 + \BA^{\mathrm{e}} \\
\gamma_0 \grad &= \gamma_0 \gamma^\mu \partial_\mu = \inv{v} \partial_t + \spacegrad \\
\grad \cdot {A^{\mathrm{e}}} &= \partial_\mu {A^{\mathrm{e}}}^\mu = \inv{v} \partial_t {A^{\mathrm{e}}}_0 – \spacegrad \cdot \BA^{\mathrm{e}},
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

so multiplying from the left with \( \gamma_0 \) gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:480}
\lr{ \inv{v^2} \partial_{tt} – \spacegrad^2 } \lr{ {A^{\mathrm{e}}}_0 + \BA^{\mathrm{e}} } – \lr{ \inv{v} \partial_t + \spacegrad }\lr{ \inv{v} \partial_t {A^{\mathrm{e}}}_0 – \spacegrad \cdot \BA^{\mathrm{e}} } = \eta( v q_e – \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}} ),
\end{equation}

or

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:520}
\lr{ \inv{v^2} \partial_{tt} – \spacegrad^2 } \BA^{\mathrm{e}} – \spacegrad \lr{ \inv{v} \partial_t {A^{\mathrm{e}}}_0 – \spacegrad \cdot \BA^{\mathrm{e}} } = -\eta \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:540}
\spacegrad^2 {A^{\mathrm{e}}}_0 – \inv{v} \partial_t \lr{ \spacegrad \cdot \BA^{\mathrm{e}} } = -q_e/\epsilon.
\end{equation}

So \( {A^{\mathrm{e}}}_0 = \phi \) and \( -\ifrac{\BA^{\mathrm{e}}}{v} = \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} \), or

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:600}
\boxed{
{A^{\mathrm{e}}} = \gamma_0\lr{ \phi – v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} }.
}
\end{equation}

No electric sources

Without electric sources, Maxwell’s equation now splits into

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:640}
\grad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = 0
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:660}
\grad \wedge \boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = -I M.
\end{equation}

Here the dual of an STA curl yields a solution

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:680}
\boxed{
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = I ( \grad \wedge {A^{\mathrm{m}}} ).
}
\end{equation}

Substituting this gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:720}
\begin{aligned}
0
&=
\grad \cdot (I ( \grad \wedge {A^{\mathrm{m}}} ) ) \\
&=
\gpgradeone{ \grad I ( \grad \wedge {A^{\mathrm{m}}} ) } \\
&=
-I \grad \wedge ( \grad \wedge {A^{\mathrm{m}}} ).
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:740}
\begin{aligned}
-I M
&=
\grad \wedge (I ( \grad \wedge {A^{\mathrm{m}}} ) ) \\
&=
\gpgradethree{ \grad I ( \grad \wedge {A^{\mathrm{m}}} ) } \\
&=
-I \grad \cdot ( \grad \wedge {A^{\mathrm{m}}} ).
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The \( \grad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} \) relation \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:720} is identically zero as desired, leaving

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:760}
\boxed{
\grad^2 {A^{\mathrm{m}}} – \grad \lr{ \grad \cdot {A^{\mathrm{m}}} }
=
M.
}
\end{equation}

So the general solution with both electric and magnetic sources is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:800}
\boxed{
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = \grad \wedge {A^{\mathrm{e}}} + I (\grad \wedge {A^{\mathrm{m}}}),
}
\end{equation}

subject to the constraints of \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:560} and \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:760}. As before the four-potential \( {A^{\mathrm{m}}} \) can be put into correspondence with the conventional scalar and vector potentials by left multiplying with \( \gamma_0 \), which gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:820}
\lr{ \inv{v^2} \partial_{tt} – \spacegrad^2 } \lr{ {A^{\mathrm{m}}}_0 + \BA^{\mathrm{m}} } – \lr{ \inv{v} \partial_t + \spacegrad }\lr{ \inv{v} \partial_t {A^{\mathrm{m}}}_0 – \spacegrad \cdot \BA^{\mathrm{m}} } = v q_m – \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}},
\end{equation}

or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:860}
\lr{ \inv{v^2} \partial_{tt} – \spacegrad^2 } \BA^{\mathrm{m}} – \spacegrad \lr{ \inv{v} \partial_t {A^{\mathrm{m}}}_0 – \spacegrad \cdot \BA^{\mathrm{m}} } = – \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:880}
\spacegrad^2 {A^{\mathrm{m}}}_0 – \inv{v} \partial_t \spacegrad \cdot \BA^{\mathrm{m}} = -v q_m.
\end{equation}

Comparing with \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:260} shows that \( {A^{\mathrm{m}}}_0/v = \mu \phi_m \) and \( -\ifrac{\BA^{\mathrm{m}}}{v^2} = \mu \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} \), or

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:900}
\boxed{
{A^{\mathrm{m}}} = \gamma_0 \eta \lr{ \phi_m – v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} }.
}
\end{equation}

Potential operator structure

Observe that there is an underlying uniform structure of the differential operator that acts on the potential to produce the electromagnetic field. Expressed as a linear operator of the
gradient and the potentials, that is

\( \boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = L(\lrgrad, {A^{\mathrm{e}}}, {A^{\mathrm{m}}}) \)

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:980}
\begin{aligned}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}}
&=
L(\grad, {A^{\mathrm{e}}}, {A^{\mathrm{m}}}) \\
&= \grad \wedge {A^{\mathrm{e}}} + I (\grad \wedge {A^{\mathrm{m}}}) \\
&=
\inv{2} \lr{ \rgrad {A^{\mathrm{e}}} – {A^{\mathrm{e}}} \lgrad }
+ \frac{I}{2} \lr{ \rgrad {A^{\mathrm{m}}} – {A^{\mathrm{m}}} \lgrad } \\
&=
\inv{2} \lr{ \rgrad {A^{\mathrm{e}}} – {A^{\mathrm{e}}} \lgrad }
+ \frac{1}{2} \lr{ -\rgrad I {A^{\mathrm{m}}} – I {A^{\mathrm{m}}} \lgrad } \\
&=
\inv{2} \lr{ \rgrad ({A^{\mathrm{e}}} -I {A^{\mathrm{m}}}) – ({A^{\mathrm{e}}} + I {A^{\mathrm{m}}}) \lgrad }
,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1000}
\boxed{
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}}
=
\inv{2} \lr{ \rgrad ({A^{\mathrm{e}}} -I {A^{\mathrm{m}}}) – ({A^{\mathrm{e}}} – I {A^{\mathrm{m}}})^\dagger \lgrad }
.
}
\end{equation}

Observe that \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:1000} can be
put into correspondence with \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:1080} using a factoring of unity \( 1 = \gamma_0 \gamma_0 \)

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1100}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}}
=
\inv{2} \lr{ (-\rgrad \gamma_0) (-\gamma_0 ({A^{\mathrm{e}}} -I {A^{\mathrm{m}}})) – (({A^{\mathrm{e}}} + I {A^{\mathrm{m}}}) \gamma_0)(\gamma_0 \lgrad) },
\end{equation}

where

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1140}
\begin{aligned}
-\grad \gamma_0
&=
-(\gamma^0 \partial_0 + \gamma^k \partial_k) \gamma_0 \\
&=
-\partial_0 – \gamma^k \gamma_0 \partial_k \\
&=
\spacegrad
-\inv{v} \partial_t
,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1160}
\begin{aligned}
\gamma_0 \grad
&=
\gamma_0 (\gamma^0 \partial_0 + \gamma^k \partial_k) \\
&=
\partial_0 – \gamma^k \gamma_0 \partial_k \\
&=
\spacegrad
+ \inv{v} \partial_t
,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

and
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1200}
\begin{aligned}
-\gamma_0 ( {A^{\mathrm{e}}} – I {A^{\mathrm{m}}} )
&=
-\gamma_0 \gamma_0 \lr{ \phi -v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} + \eta I \lr{ \phi_m – v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} } } \\
&=
-\lr{ \phi -v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} + \eta I \phi_m – \eta v I \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} } \\
&=
– \phi
+ v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}}
+ \eta v I \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}
– \eta I \phi_m
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1220}
\begin{aligned}
( {A^{\mathrm{e}}} + I {A^{\mathrm{m}}} )\gamma_0
&=
\lr{ \gamma_0 \lr{ \phi -v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} } + I \gamma_0 \eta \lr{ \phi_m – v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} } } \gamma_0 \\
&=
\phi + v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} + I \eta \phi_m + I \eta v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} \\
&=
\phi
+ v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}}
+ \eta v I \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}
+ \eta I \phi_m
,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This recovers \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:1080} as desired.

Potentials in the 3D Euclidean formalism

In the conventional scalar plus vector differential representation of Maxwell’s equations \ref{eqn:chapter3Notes:20}…, given electric(magnetic) sources the structure of the electric(magnetic) potential follows from first setting the magnetic(electric) field equal to the curl of a vector potential. The procedure for the STA GA form of Maxwell’s equation was similar, where it was immediately evident that the field could be set to the four-curl of a four-vector potential (or the dual of such a curl for magnetic sources).

In the 3D GA representation, there is no immediate rationale for introducing a curl or the equivalent to a four-curl representation of the field. Reconciliation of this is possible by recognizing that the fact that the field (or a component of it) may be represented by a curl is not actually fundamental. Instead, observe that the two sided gradient action on a potential to generate the electromagnetic field in the STA representation of \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:1000} serves to select the grade two component product of the gradient and the multivector potential \( {A^{\mathrm{e}}} – I {A^{\mathrm{m}}} \), and that this can in fact be written as
a single sided gradient operation on a potential, provided the multivector product is filtered with a four-bivector grade selection operation

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1240}
\boxed{
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = \gpgradetwo{ \grad \lr{ {A^{\mathrm{e}}} – I {A^{\mathrm{m}}} } }.
}
\end{equation}

Similarly, it can be observed that the
specific function of the conjugate structure in the two sided potential representation of
\ref{eqn:potentialMethods:1080}
is to discard all the scalar and pseudoscalar grades in the multivector product. This means that a single sided potential can also be used, provided it is wrapped in a grade selection operation

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1260}
\boxed{
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} =
\gpgrade{ \lr{ \spacegrad – \inv{v} \PD{t}{} }
\lr{
– \phi
+ v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}}
+ \eta I v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}
– \eta I \phi_m
} }{1,2}.
}
\end{equation}

It is this grade selection operation that is really the fundamental defining action in the potential of the STA and conventional 3D representations of Maxwell’s equations. So, given Maxwell’s equation in the 3D GA representation, defining a potential representation for the field is really just a demand that the field have the structure

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1320}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = \gpgrade{ (\alpha \spacegrad + \beta \partial_t)( A_0 + A_1 + I( A_0′ + A_1′ ) }{1,2}.
\end{equation}

This is a mandate that the electromagnetic field is the grades 1 and 2 components of the vector product of space and time derivative operators on a multivector field \( A = \sum_{k=0}^3 A_k = A_0 + A_1 + I( A_0′ + A_1′ ) \) that can potentially have any grade components. There are more degrees of freedom in this specification than required, since the multivector can absorb one of the \( \alpha \) or \( \beta \) coefficients, so without loss of generality, one of these (say \( \alpha\)) can be set to 1.

Expanding \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:1320} gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1340}
\begin{aligned}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}}
&=
\spacegrad A_0
+ \beta \partial_t A_1
– \spacegrad \cross A_1′
+ I (\spacegrad \cross A_1
+ \beta \partial_t A_1′
+ \spacegrad A_0′) \\
&=
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} + I \eta \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This naturally has all the right mixes of curls, gradients and time derivatives, all following as direct consequences of applying a grade selection operation to the action of a “spacetime gradient” on a general multivector potential.

The conclusion is that the potential representation of the field is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1360}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} =
\gpgrade{ \lr{ \spacegrad – \inv{v} \PD{t}{} } A }{1,2},
\end{equation}

where \( A \) is a multivector potentially containing all grades, where grades 0,1 are required for electric sources, and grades 2,3 are required for magnetic sources. When it is desirable to refer back to the conventional scalar and vector potentials this multivector potential can be written as \( A = -\phi + v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} + \eta I \lr{ -\phi_m + v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} } \).

Gauge transformations

Recall that for electric sources the magnetic field is of the form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1380}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}} = \spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}},
\end{equation}

so adding the gradient of any scalar field to the potential \( \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}’ = \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}} + \spacegrad \psi \)
does not change the magnetic field

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1400}
\begin{aligned}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}}’
&= \spacegrad \cross \lr{ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}} + \spacegrad \psi } \\
&= \spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}} \\
&= \boldsymbol{\mathcal{B}}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The electric field with this changed potential is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1420}
\begin{aligned}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}}’
&= -\spacegrad \phi – \partial_t \lr{ \BA + \spacegrad \psi} \\
&= -\spacegrad \lr{ \phi + \partial_t \psi } – \partial_t \BA,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

so if
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1440}
\phi = \phi’ – \partial_t \psi,
\end{equation}

the electric field will also be unaltered by this transformation.

In the STA representation, the field can similarly be altered by adding any (four)gradient to the potential. For example with only electric sources

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1460}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = \grad \wedge (A + \grad \psi) = \grad \wedge A
\end{equation}

and for electric or magnetic sources

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1480}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}} = \gpgradetwo{ \grad (A + \grad \psi) } = \gpgradetwo{ \grad A }.
\end{equation}

In the 3D GA representation, where the field is given by \ref{eqn:potentialMethods:1360}, there is no field that is being curled to add a gradient to. However, if the scalar and vector potentials transform as

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1500}
\begin{aligned}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}} &\rightarrow \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}} + \spacegrad \psi \\
\phi &\rightarrow \phi – \partial_t \psi,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

then the multivector potential transforms as
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1520}
-\phi + v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}
\rightarrow -\phi + v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}} + \partial_t \psi + v \spacegrad \psi,
\end{equation}

so the electromagnetic field is unchanged when the multivector potential is transformed as

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1540}
A \rightarrow A + \lr{ \spacegrad + \inv{v} \partial_t } \psi,
\end{equation}

where \( \psi \) is any field that has scalar or pseudoscalar grades. Viewed in terms of grade selection, this makes perfect sense, since the transformed field is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1560}
\begin{aligned}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}}
&\rightarrow
\gpgrade{ \lr{ \spacegrad – \inv{v} \PD{t}{} } \lr{ A + \lr{ \spacegrad + \inv{v} \partial_t } \psi } }{1,2} \\
&=
\gpgrade{ \lr{ \spacegrad – \inv{v} \PD{t}{} } A + \lr{ \spacegrad^2 – \inv{v^2} \partial_{tt} } \psi }{1,2} \\
&=
\gpgrade{ \lr{ \spacegrad – \inv{v} \PD{t}{} } A }{1,2}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The \( \psi \) contribution to the grade selection operator is killed because it has scalar or pseudoscalar grades.

Lorenz gauge

Maxwell’s equations are completely decoupled if the potential can be found such that

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1580}
\begin{aligned}
\boldsymbol{\mathcal{F}}
&=
\gpgrade{ \lr{ \spacegrad – \inv{v} \PD{t}{} } A }{1,2} \\
&=
\lr{ \spacegrad – \inv{v} \PD{t}{} } A.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

When this is the case, Maxwell’s equations are reduced to four non-homogeneous potential wave equations

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1620}
\lr{ \spacegrad^2 – \inv{v^2} \PDSq{t}{} } A = J,
\end{equation}

that is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1600}
\begin{aligned}
\lr{ \spacegrad^2 – \inv{v^2} \PDSq{t}{} } \phi &= – \inv{\epsilon} q_e \\
\lr{ \spacegrad^2 – \inv{v^2} \PDSq{t}{} } \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} &= – \mu \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}} \\
\lr{ \spacegrad^2 – \inv{v^2} \PDSq{t}{} } \phi_m &= – \frac{I}{\mu} q_m \\
\lr{ \spacegrad^2 – \inv{v^2} \PDSq{t}{} } \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} &= – I \epsilon \boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

There should be no a-priori assumption that such a field representation has no scalar, nor no pseudoscalar components. That explicit expansion in grades is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1640}
\begin{aligned}
\lr{ \spacegrad – \inv{v} \PD{t}{} } A
&=
\lr{ \spacegrad – \inv{v} \PD{t}{} } \lr{ -\phi + v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} + \eta I \lr{ -\phi_m + v \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} } } \\
&=
\inv{v} \partial_t \phi
+ v \spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} \\
&-\spacegrad \phi
+ I \eta v \spacegrad \wedge \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}}
– \partial_t \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} \\
&+ v \spacegrad \wedge \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}}
– \eta I \spacegrad \phi_m
– I \eta \partial_t \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} \\
&+ \eta I \inv{v} \partial_t \phi_m
+ I \eta v \spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}},
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

so if this potential representation has only vector and bivector grades, it must be true that

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1660}
\begin{aligned}
\inv{v} \partial_t \phi + v \spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} &= 0 \\
\inv{v} \partial_t \phi_m + v \spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{m}} &= 0.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The first is the well known Lorenz gauge condition, whereas the second is the dual of that condition for magnetic sources.

Should one of these conditions, say the Lorenz condition for the electric source potentials, be non-zero, then it is possible to make a potential transformation for which this condition is zero

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1680}
\begin{aligned}
0
&\ne
\inv{v} \partial_t \phi + v \spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}} \\
&=
\inv{v} \partial_t (\phi’ – \partial_t \psi) + v \spacegrad \cdot (\boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}’ + \spacegrad \psi) \\
&=
\inv{v} \partial_t \phi’ + v \spacegrad \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}’
+ v \lr{ \spacegrad^2 – \inv{v^2} \partial_{tt} } \psi,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

so if \( \inv{v} \partial_t \phi’ + v \spacegrad \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}’ \) is zero, \( \psi \) must be found such that
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:potentialMethods:1700}
\inv{v} \partial_t \phi + v \spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{A}}^{\mathrm{e}}
= v \lr{ \spacegrad^2 – \inv{v^2} \partial_{tt} } \psi.
\end{equation}

References

[1] Constantine A Balanis. Antenna theory: analysis and design. John Wiley \& Sons, 3rd edition, 2005.

[2] C. Doran and A.N. Lasenby. Geometric algebra for physicists. Cambridge University Press New York, Cambridge, UK, 1st edition, 2003.

[3] David M Pozar. Microwave engineering. John Wiley \& Sons, 2009.

Corollaries to Stokes and Divergence theorems

October 12, 2016 math and physics play No comments , , , , , , , , ,

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In [1] a few problems are set to prove some variations of Stokes theorem. He gives some cool tricks to prove each one using just the classic 3D Stokes and divergence theorems. We can also do them directly from the more general Stokes theorem \( \int d^k \Bx \cdot (\spacegrad \wedge F) = \oint d^{k-1} \Bx \cdot F \).

Question: Stokes theorem on scalar function. ([1] pr. 1.60a)

Prove
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:20}
\int \spacegrad T dV = \oint T d\Ba.
\end{equation}

Answer

The direct way to prove this is to apply Stokes theorem

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:80}
\int d^3 \Bx \cdot (\spacegrad \wedge T) = \oint d^2 \Bx \cdot T
\end{equation}

Here \( d^3 \Bx = d\Bx_1 \wedge d\Bx_2 \wedge d\Bx_3 \), a pseudoscalar (trivector) volume element, and the wedge and dot products take their most general meanings. For \(k\)-blade \( F \), and \(k’\)-blade \( F’ \), that is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:100}
\begin{aligned}
F \wedge F’ &= \gpgrade{F F’}{k+k’} \\
F \cdot F’ &= \gpgrade{F F’}{\Abs{k-k’}}
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

With \( d^3\Bx = I dV \), and \( d^2 \Bx = I \ncap dA = I d\Ba \), we have

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:120}
\int I dV \spacegrad T = \oint I d\Ba T.
\end{equation}

Cancelling the factors of \( I \) proves the result.

Griffith’s trick to do this was to let \( \Bv = \Bc T \), where \( \Bc \) is a constant. For this, the divergence theorem integral is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:160}
\begin{aligned}
\int dV \spacegrad \cdot (\Bc T)
&=
\int dV \Bc \cdot \spacegrad T \\
&=
\Bc \cdot \int dV \spacegrad T \\
&=
\oint d\Ba \cdot (\Bc T) \\
&=
\Bc \cdot \oint d\Ba T.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This is true for any constant \( \Bc \), so is also true for the unit vectors. This allows for summing projections in each of the unit directions

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:180}
\begin{aligned}
\int dV \spacegrad T
&=
\sum \Be_k \lr{ \Be_k \cdot \int dV \spacegrad T } \\
&=
\sum \Be_k \lr{ \Be_k \cdot \oint d\Ba T } \\
&=
\oint d\Ba T.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Question: ([1] pr. 1.60b)

Prove
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:40}
\int \spacegrad \cross \Bv dV = -\oint \Bv \cross d\Ba.
\end{equation}

Answer

This also follows directly from the general Stokes theorem

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:200}
\int d^3 \Bx \cdot \lr{ \spacegrad \wedge \Bv } = \oint d^2 \Bx \cdot \Bv
\end{equation}

The volume integrand is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:220}
\begin{aligned}
d^3 \Bx \cdot \lr{ \spacegrad \wedge \Bv }
&=
\gpgradeone{ I dV I \spacegrad \cross \Bv } \\
&=
-dV \spacegrad \cross \Bv,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

and the surface integrand is
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:240}
\begin{aligned}
d^2 \Bx \cdot \Bv
&=
\gpgradeone{ I d\Ba \Bv } \\
&=
\gpgradeone{ I (d\Ba \wedge \Bv) } \\
&=
I^2 (d\Ba \cross \Bv) \\
&=
-d\Ba \cross \Bv \\
&=
\Bv \cross d\Ba.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Plugging these into \ref{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:200} proves the result.

Griffiths trick for the same is to apply the divergence theorem to \( \Bv \cross \Bc \). Such a volume integral is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:260}
\begin{aligned}
\int dV \spacegrad \cdot (\Bv \cross \Bc)
&=
\int dV \Bc \cdot (\spacegrad \cross \Bv) \\
&=
\Bc \cdot \int dV \spacegrad \cross \Bv.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This must equal
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:280}
\begin{aligned}
\oint d\Ba \cdot (\Bv \cross \Bc)
&=
\Bc \cdot \oint d\Ba \cross \Bv \\
&=
-\Bc \cdot \oint \Bv \cross d\Ba
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Again, assembling projections, we have
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:300}
\begin{aligned}
\int dV \spacegrad \cross \Bv
&=
\sum \Be_k \lr{ \Be_k \cdot \int dV \spacegrad \cross \Bv } \\
&=
-\sum \Be_k \lr{ \Be_k \cdot \oint \Bv \cross d\Ba } \\
&=
-\oint \Bv \cross d\Ba.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Question: ([1] pr. 1.60e)

Prove
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:60}
\int \spacegrad T \cross d\Ba = -\oint T d\Bl.
\end{equation}

Answer

This one follows from
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:320}
\int d^2 \Bx \cdot \lr{ \spacegrad \wedge T } = \oint d^1 \Bx \cdot T.
\end{equation}

The surface integrand can be written
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:340}
\begin{aligned}
d^2 \Bx \cdot \lr{ \spacegrad \wedge T }
&=
\gpgradeone{ I d\Ba \spacegrad T } \\
&=
I (d\Ba \wedge \spacegrad T ) \\
&=
I^2 ( d\Ba \cross \spacegrad T ) \\
&=
-d\Ba \cross \spacegrad T.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The line integrand is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:360}
d^1 \Bx \cdot T = d^1 \Bx T.
\end{equation}

Given a two parameter representation of the surface area element \( d^2 \Bx = d\Bx_1 \wedge d\Bx_2 \), the line element representation is
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:380}
\begin{aligned}
d^1 \Bx
&= (\Bx_1 \wedge d\Bx_2) \cdot \Bx^1 + (d\Bx_1 \wedge \Bx_2) \cdot \Bx^2 \\
&= -d\Bx_2 + d\Bx_1,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

giving

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:400}
\begin{aligned}
-\int d\Ba \cross \spacegrad T
&=
\int
-\evalbar{\lr{ \PD{u_2}{\Bx} T }}{\Delta u_1} du_2
+\evalbar{\lr{ \PD{u_1}{\Bx} T }}{\Delta u_2} du_1 \\
&=
-\oint d\Bl T,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:420}
\int \spacegrad T \cross d\Ba
=
-\oint d\Bl T.
\end{equation}

Griffiths trick for the same is to use \( \Bv = \Bc T \) for constant \( \Bc \) in (the usual 3D) Stokes’ theorem. That is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:440}
\begin{aligned}
\int d\Ba \cdot (\spacegrad \cross (\Bc T))
&=
\Bc \cdot \int d\Ba \cross \spacegrad T \\
&=
-\Bc \cdot \int \spacegrad T \cross d\Ba \\
&=
\oint d\Bl \cdot (\Bc T) \\
&=
\Bc \cdot \oint d\Bl T.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Again assembling projections we have
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesCorollariesGriffiths:460}
\begin{aligned}
\int \spacegrad T \cross d\Ba
&=
\sum \Be_k \lr{ \Be_k \cdot \int \spacegrad T \cross d\Ba} \\
&=
-\sum \Be_k \lr{ \Be_k \cdot \oint d\Bl T } \\
&=
-\oint d\Bl T.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

References

[1] David Jeffrey Griffiths and Reed College. Introduction to electrodynamics. Prentice hall Upper Saddle River, NJ, 3rd edition, 1999.

Geometric Algebra in a nutshell.

September 29, 2016 math and physics play No comments , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

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Motivation

I initially thought that I might submit a problem set solution for ece1228 using Geometric Algebra. In order to justify this, I needed to add an appendix to that problem set that outlined enough of the ideas that such a solution might make sense to the grader.

I ended up changing my mind and reworked the problem entirely, removing any use of GA. Here’s the tutorial I initially considered submitting with that problem.

Geometric Algebra in a nutshell.

Geometric Algebra defines a non-commutative, associative vector product

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:20}
\begin{aligned}
\Ba \Bb \Bc
&=
(\Ba \Bb) \Bc \\
&=
\Ba (\Bb \Bc),
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

where the square of a vector equals the squared vector magnitude

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:40}
\Ba^2 = \Abs{\Ba}^2,
\end{equation}

In Euclidean spaces such a squared vector is always positive, but that is not necessarily the case in the mixed signature spaces used in special relativity.

There are a number of consequences of these two simple vector multiplication rules.

  • Squared unit vectors have a unit magnitude (up to a sign). In a Euclidean space such a product is always positive

    \begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:60}
    (\Be_1)^2 = 1.
    \end{equation}

  • Products of perpendicular vectors anticommute.

    \begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:80}
    \begin{aligned}
    2
    &=
    (\Be_1 + \Be_2)^2 \\
    &= (\Be_1 + \Be_2)(\Be_1 + \Be_2) \\
    &= \Be_1^2 + \Be_2 \Be_1 + \Be_1 \Be_2 + \Be_2^2 \\
    &= 2 + \Be_2 \Be_1 + \Be_1 \Be_2.
    \end{aligned}
    \end{equation}

    A product of two perpendicular vectors is called a bivector, and can be used to represent an oriented plane. The last line above shows an example of a scalar and bivector sum, called a multivector. In general Geometric Algebra allows sums of scalars, vectors, bivectors, and higher degree analogues (grades) be summed.

    Comparison of the RHS and LHS of \ref{eqn:gaTutorial:80} shows that we must have

    \begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:100}
    \Be_2 \Be_1 = -\Be_1 \Be_2.
    \end{equation}

    It is true in general that the product of two perpendicular vectors anticommutes. When, as above, such a product is a product of
    two orthonormal vectors, it behaves like a non-commutative imaginary quantity, as it has an imaginary square in Euclidean spaces

    \begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:120}
    \begin{aligned}
    (\Be_1 \Be_2)^2
    &=
    (\Be_1 \Be_2)
    (\Be_1 \Be_2) \\
    &=
    \Be_1 (\Be_2
    \Be_1) \Be_2 \\
    &=
    -\Be_1 (\Be_1
    \Be_2) \Be_2 \\
    &=
    -(\Be_1 \Be_1)
    (\Be_2 \Be_2) \\
    &=-1.
    \end{aligned}
    \end{equation}

    Such “imaginary” (unit bivectors) have important applications describing rotations in Euclidean spaces, and boosts in Minkowski spaces.

  • The product of three perpendicular vectors, such as

    \begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:140}
    I = \Be_1 \Be_2 \Be_3,
    \end{equation}

    is called a trivector. In \R{3}, the product of three orthonormal vectors is called a pseudoscalar for the space, and can represent an oriented volume element. The quantity \( I \) above is the typical orientation picked for the \R{3} unit pseudoscalar. This quantity also has characteristics of an imaginary number

    \begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:160}
    \begin{aligned}
    I^2
    &=
    (\Be_1 \Be_2 \Be_3)
    (\Be_1 \Be_2 \Be_3) \\
    &=
    \Be_1 \Be_2 (\Be_3
    \Be_1) \Be_2 \Be_3 \\
    &=
    -\Be_1 \Be_2 \Be_1
    \Be_3 \Be_2 \Be_3 \\
    &=
    -\Be_1 (\Be_2 \Be_1)
    (\Be_3 \Be_2) \Be_3 \\
    &=
    -\Be_1 (\Be_1 \Be_2)
    (\Be_2 \Be_3) \Be_3 \\
    &=

    \Be_1^2
    \Be_2^2
    \Be_3^2 \\
    &=
    -1.
    \end{aligned}
    \end{equation}

  • The product of two vectors in \R{3} can be expressed as the sum of a symmetric scalar product and antisymmetric bivector product

    \begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:480}
    \begin{aligned}
    \Ba \Bb
    &=
    \sum_{i,j = 1}^n \Be_i \Be_j a_i b_j \\
    &=
    \sum_{i = 1}^n \Be_i^2 a_i b_i
    +
    \sum_{0 < i \ne j \le n} \Be_i \Be_j a_i b_j \\ &= \sum_{i = 1}^n a_i b_i + \sum_{0 < i < j \le n} \Be_i \Be_j (a_i b_j - a_j b_i). \end{aligned} \end{equation} The first (symmetric) term is clearly the dot product. The antisymmetric term is designated the wedge product. In general these are written \begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:500} \Ba \Bb = \Ba \cdot \Bb + \Ba \wedge \Bb, \end{equation} where \begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:520} \begin{aligned} \Ba \cdot \Bb &\equiv \inv{2} \lr{ \Ba \Bb + \Bb \Ba } \\ \Ba \wedge \Bb &\equiv \inv{2} \lr{ \Ba \Bb - \Bb \Ba }, \end{aligned} \end{equation} The coordinate expansion of both can be seen above, but in \R{3} the wedge can also be written \begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:540} \Ba \wedge \Bb = \Be_1 \Be_2 \Be_3 (\Ba \cross \Bb) = I (\Ba \cross \Bb). \end{equation} This allows for an handy dot plus cross product expansion of the vector product \begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:180} \Ba \Bb = \Ba \cdot \Bb + I (\Ba \cross \Bb). \end{equation} This result should be familiar to the student of quantum spin states where one writes \begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:200} (\Bsigma \cdot \Ba) (\Bsigma \cdot \Bb) = (\Ba \cdot \Bb) + i (\Ba \cross \Bb) \cdot \Bsigma. \end{equation} This correspondence is because the Pauli spin basis is a specific matrix representation of a Geometric Algebra, satisfying the same commutator and anticommutator relationships. A number of other algebra structures, such as complex numbers, and quaterions can also be modelled as Geometric Algebra elements.

  • It is often useful to utilize the grade selection operator
    \( \gpgrade{M}{n} \) and scalar grade selection operator \( \gpgradezero{M} = \gpgrade{M}{0} \)
    to select the scalar, vector, bivector, trivector, or higher grade algebraic elements. For example, operating on vectors \( \Ba, \Bb, \Bc \), we have

    \begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:580}
    \begin{aligned}
    \gpgradezero{ \Ba \Bb }
    &= \Ba \cdot \Bb \\
    \gpgradeone{ \Ba \Bb \Bc }
    &=
    \Ba (\Bb \cdot \Bc)
    +
    \Ba \cdot (\Bb \wedge \Bc) \\
    &=
    \Ba (\Bb \cdot \Bc)
    +
    (\Ba \cdot \Bb) \Bc

    (\Ba \cdot \Bc) \Bb \\
    \gpgradetwo{\Ba \Bb} &=
    \Ba \wedge \Bb \\
    \gpgradethree{\Ba \Bb \Bc} &=
    \Ba \wedge \Bb \wedge \Bc.
    \end{aligned}
    \end{equation}

    Note that the wedge product of any number of vectors such as \( \Ba \wedge \Bb \wedge \Bc \) is associative and can be expressed in terms of the complete antisymmetrization of the product of those vectors. A consequence of that is the fact a wedge product that includes any colinear vectors in the product is zero.

Example: Helmholz equations.

As an example of the power of \ref{eqn:gaTutorial:180}, consider the following Helmholtz equation derivation (wave equations for the electric and magnetic fields in the frequency domain.)

Application of \ref{eqn:gaTutorial:180} to
Maxwell equations in the frequency domain for source free simple media gives

\label{eqn:emtProblemSet1Problem6:340}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:emtProblemSet1Problem6:360}
\spacegrad \BE = -j \omega I \BB
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:emtProblemSet1Problem6:380}
\spacegrad I \BB = -j \omega \mu \epsilon \BE.
\end{equation}

These equations use the engineering (not physics) sign convention for the phasors where the time domain fields are of the form \( \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}}(\Br, t) = \textrm{Re}( \BE e^{j\omega t} \).

Operation with the gradient from the left produces the Helmholtz equation for each of the fields using nothing more than multiplication and simple substitution

\label{eqn:emtProblemSet1Problem6:400}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:emtProblemSet1Problem6:420}
\spacegrad^2 \BE = – \mu \epsilon \omega^2 \BE
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:emtProblemSet1Problem6:440}
\spacegrad^2 I \BB = – \mu \epsilon \omega^2 I \BB.
\end{equation}

There was no reason to go through the headache of looking up or deriving the expansion of \( \spacegrad \cross (\spacegrad \cross \BA ) \) as is required with the traditional vector algebra demonstration of these identities.

Observe that the usual Helmholtz equation for \( \BB \) doesn’t have a pseudoscalar factor. That result can be obtained by just cancelling the factors \( I \) since the \R{3} Euclidean pseudoscalar commutes with all grades (this isn’t the case in \R{2} nor in Minkowski spaces.)

Example: Factoring the Laplacian.

There are various ways to demonstrate the identity

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:660}
\spacegrad \cross \lr{ \spacegrad \cross \BA } = \spacegrad \lr{ \spacegrad \cdot \BA } – \spacegrad^2 \BA,
\end{equation}

such as the use of (somewhat obscure) tensor contraction techniques. We can also do this with Geometric Algebra (using a different set of obscure techniques) by factoring the Laplacian action on a vector

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:700}
\begin{aligned}
\spacegrad^2 \BA
&=
\spacegrad (\spacegrad \BA) \\
&=
\spacegrad (\spacegrad \cdot \BA + \spacegrad \wedge \BA) \\
&=
\spacegrad (\spacegrad \cdot \BA)
+
\spacegrad \cdot (\spacegrad \wedge \BA) \\
%+
%\cancel{\spacegrad \wedge \spacegrad \wedge \BA}
&=
\spacegrad (\spacegrad \cdot \BA)
+
\spacegrad \cdot (\spacegrad \wedge \BA).
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Should we wish to express the last term using cross products, a grade one selection operation can be used
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaTutorial:680}
\begin{aligned}
\spacegrad \cdot (\spacegrad \wedge \BA)
&=
\gpgradeone{ \spacegrad (\spacegrad \wedge \BA) } \\
&=
\gpgradeone{ \spacegrad I (\spacegrad \cross \BA) } \\
&=
\gpgradeone{ I \spacegrad \wedge (\spacegrad \cross \BA) } \\
&=
\gpgradeone{ I^2 \spacegrad \cross (\spacegrad \cross \BA) } \\
&=
-\spacegrad \cross (\spacegrad \cross \BA).
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Here coordinate expansion was not required in any step.

Learning more.

Some references that may be helpful to learn more about Geometric Algebra are [2], [1], [4], and [3].

References

[1] C. Doran and A.N. Lasenby. Geometric algebra for physicists. Cambridge University Press New York, Cambridge, UK, 1st edition, 2003.

[2] L. Dorst, D. Fontijne, and S. Mann. Geometric Algebra for Computer Science. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, 2007.

[3] D. Hestenes. New Foundations for Classical Mechanics. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.

[4] A. Macdonald. Vector and Geometric Calculus. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012.

Green’s function inversion of the magnetostatic equation

September 27, 2016 math and physics play No comments , , , , , , , , ,

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A previous example of inverting a gradient equation was the electrostatics equation. We can do the same for the magnetostatics equation, which has the following Geometric Algebra form in linear media

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:biotSavartGreens:20}
\spacegrad I \BB = – \mu \BJ.
\end{equation}

The Green’s inversion of this is
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:biotSavartGreens:40}
\begin{aligned}
I \BB(\Bx)
&= \int_V dV’ G(\Bx, \Bx’) \spacegrad’ I \BB(\Bx’) \\
&= \int_V dV’ G(\Bx, \Bx’) (-\mu \BJ(\Bx’)) \\
&= \inv{4\pi} \int_V dV’ \frac{\Bx – \Bx’}{ \Abs{\Bx – \Bx’}^3 } (-\mu \BJ(\Bx’)).
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

We expect the LHS to be a bivector, so the scalar component of this should be zero. That can be demonstrated with some of the usual trickery
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:biotSavartGreens:60}
\begin{aligned}
-\frac{\mu}{4\pi} \int_V dV’ \frac{\Bx – \Bx’}{ \Abs{\Bx – \Bx’}^3 } \cdot \BJ(\Bx’)
&= \frac{\mu}{4\pi} \int_V dV’ \lr{ \spacegrad \inv{ \Abs{\Bx – \Bx’} }} \cdot \BJ(\Bx’) \\
&= -\frac{\mu}{4\pi} \int_V dV’ \lr{ \spacegrad’ \inv{ \Abs{\Bx – \Bx’} }} \cdot \BJ(\Bx’) \\
&= -\frac{\mu}{4\pi} \int_V dV’ \lr{
\spacegrad’ \cdot \frac{\BJ(\Bx’)}{ \Abs{\Bx – \Bx’} }

\frac{\spacegrad’ \cdot \BJ(\Bx’)}{ \Abs{\Bx – \Bx’} }
}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The current \( \BJ \) is not unconstrained. This can be seen by premultiplying \ref{eqn:biotSavartGreens:20} by the gradient

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:biotSavartGreens:80}
\spacegrad^2 I \BB = -\mu \spacegrad \BJ.
\end{equation}

On the LHS we have a bivector so must have \( \spacegrad \BJ = \spacegrad \wedge \BJ \), or \( \spacegrad \cdot \BJ = 0 \). This kills the \( \spacegrad’ \cdot \BJ(\Bx’) \) integrand numerator in \ref{eqn:biotSavartGreens:60}, leaving

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:biotSavartGreens:100}
\begin{aligned}
-\frac{\mu}{4\pi} \int_V dV’ \frac{\Bx – \Bx’}{ \Abs{\Bx – \Bx’}^3 } \cdot \BJ(\Bx’)
&= -\frac{\mu}{4\pi} \int_V dV’ \spacegrad’ \cdot \frac{\BJ(\Bx’)}{ \Abs{\Bx – \Bx’} } \\
&= -\frac{\mu}{4\pi} \int_{\partial V} dA’ \ncap \cdot \frac{\BJ(\Bx’)}{ \Abs{\Bx – \Bx’} }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This shows that the scalar part of the equation is zero, provided the normal component of \( \BJ/\Abs{\Bx – \Bx’} \) vanishes on the boundary of the infinite sphere. This leaves the Biot-Savart law as a bivector equation

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:biotSavartGreens:120}
I \BB(\Bx)
= \frac{\mu}{4\pi} \int_V dV’ \BJ(\Bx’) \wedge \frac{\Bx – \Bx’}{ \Abs{\Bx – \Bx’}^3 }.
\end{equation}

Observe that the traditional vector form of the Biot-Savart law can be obtained by premultiplying both sides with \( -I \), leaving

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:biotSavartGreens:140}
\BB(\Bx)
= \frac{\mu}{4\pi} \int_V dV’ \BJ(\Bx’) \cross \frac{\Bx – \Bx’}{ \Abs{\Bx – \Bx’}^3 }.
\end{equation}

This checks against a trusted source such as [1] (eq. 5.39).

References

[1] David Jeffrey Griffiths and Reed College. Introduction to electrodynamics. Prentice hall Upper Saddle River, NJ, 3rd edition, 1999.

Maxwell equation boundary conditions in media

September 10, 2016 math and physics play No comments , , , , , , , , ,

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Following [1], Maxwell’s equations in media, including both electric and magnetic sources and currents are

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:40}
\spacegrad \cross \BE = -\BM – \partial_t \BB
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:60}
\spacegrad \cross \BH = \BJ + \partial_t \BD
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:80}
\spacegrad \cdot \BD = \rho
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:100}
\spacegrad \cdot \BB = \rho_{\textrm{m}}
\end{equation}

In general, it is not possible to assemble these into a single Geometric Algebra equation unless specific assumptions about the permeabilities are made, but we can still use Geometric Algebra to examine the boundary condition question. First, these equations can be expressed in a more natural multivector form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:140}
\spacegrad \wedge \BE = -I \lr{ \BM + \partial_t \BB }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:160}
\spacegrad \wedge \BH = I \lr{ \BJ + \partial_t \BD }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:180}
\spacegrad \cdot \BD = \rho
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:200}
\spacegrad \cdot \BB = \rho_{\textrm{m}}
\end{equation}

Then duality relations can be used on the divergences to write all four equations in their curl form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:240}
\spacegrad \wedge \BE = -I \lr{ \BM + \partial_t \BB }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:260}
\spacegrad \wedge \BH = I \lr{ \BJ + \partial_t \BD }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:280}
\spacegrad \wedge (I\BD) = \rho I
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:300}
\spacegrad \wedge (I\BB) = \rho_{\textrm{m}} I.
\end{equation}

Now it is possible to employ Stokes theorem to each of these. The usual procedure is to both use the loops of fig. 2 and the pillbox of fig. 1, where in both cases the height is made infinitesimal.

boundaryConditionsTwoSurfacesFig1

fig 1. Two surfaces normal to the interface.

boundaryConditionsPillBoxFig2

fig 2. A pillbox volume encompassing the interface.

With all these relations expressed in curl form as above, we can use just the pillbox configuration to evaluate the Stokes integrals.
Let the height \( h \) be measured along the normal axis, and assume that all the charges and currents are localized to the surface

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:320}
\begin{aligned}
\BM &= \BM_{\textrm{s}} \delta( h ) \\
\BJ &= \BJ_{\textrm{s}} \delta( h ) \\
\rho &= \rho_{\textrm{s}} \delta( h ) \\
\rho_{\textrm{m}} &= \rho_{\textrm{m}\textrm{s}} \delta( h ),
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

we can enumerate the Stokes integrals \( \int d^3 \Bx \cdot \lr{ \spacegrad \wedge \BX } = \oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot \BX \). The three-volume area element will be written as \( d^3 \Bx = d^2 \Bx \wedge \ncap dh \), giving

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:360}
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot \BE = -\int (d^2 \Bx \wedge \ncap) \cdot \lr{ I \BM_{\textrm{s}} + \partial_t I \BB \Delta h}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:380}
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot \BH = \int (d^2 \Bx \wedge \ncap) \cdot \lr{ I \BJ_{\textrm{s}} + \partial_t I \BD \Delta h}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:400}
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot (I\BD) = \int (d^2 \Bx \wedge \ncap) \cdot \lr{ \rho_{\textrm{s}} I }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:420}
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot (I\BB) = \int (d^2 \Bx \wedge \ncap) \cdot \lr{ \rho_{\textrm{m}\textrm{s}} I }
\end{equation}

In the limit with \( \Delta h \rightarrow 0 \), the LHS integrals are reduced to just the top and bottom surfaces, and the \( \Delta h \) contributions on the RHS are eliminated. With \( i = I \ncap \), and \( d^2 \Bx = dA\, i \) on the top surface, we are left with

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:460}
0 = \int dA \lr{ i \cdot \Delta \BE + I \cdot \lr{ I \BM_{\textrm{s}} } }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:480}
0 = \int dA \lr{ i \cdot \Delta \BH – I \cdot \lr{ I \BJ_{\textrm{s}} } }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:500}
0 = \int dA \lr{ i \cdot \Delta (I\BD) + \rho_{\textrm{s}} }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:520}
0 = \int dA \lr{ i \cdot \Delta (I\BB) + \rho_{\textrm{m}\textrm{s}} }
\end{equation}

Consider the first integral. Any component of \( \BE \) that is normal to the plane of the pillbox top (or bottom) has no contribution to the integral, so this constraint is one that effects only the tangential components \( \ncap (\ncap \wedge (\Delta \BE)) \). Writing out the vector portion of the integrand, we have

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:540}
\begin{aligned}
i \cdot \Delta \BE + I \cdot \lr{ I \BM_{\textrm{s}} }
&=
\gpgradeone{ i \Delta \BE + I^2 \BM_{\textrm{s}} } \\
&=
\gpgradeone{ I \ncap \Delta \BE – \BM_{\textrm{s}} } \\
&=
\gpgradeone{ I \ncap \ncap (\ncap \wedge \Delta \BE) – \BM_{\textrm{s}} } \\
&=
\gpgradeone{ I (\ncap \wedge (\Delta \BE)) – \BM_{\textrm{s}} } \\
&=
\gpgradeone{ -\ncap \cross (\Delta \BE) – \BM_{\textrm{s}} }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The dot product (a scalar) in the two surface charge integrals can also be reduced

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:560}
\begin{aligned}
i \cdot \Delta (I\BD)
&=
\gpgradezero{ i \Delta (I\BD) } \\
&=
\gpgradezero{ I \ncap \Delta (I\BD) } \\
&=
\gpgradezero{ -\ncap \Delta \BD } \\
&=
-\ncap \cdot \Delta \BD,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

so the integral equations are satisfied provided

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boundaryConditionsInMedia:580}
\boxed{
\begin{aligned}
\ncap \cross (\BE_2 – \BE_1) &= – \BM_{\textrm{s}} \\
\ncap \cross (\BH_2 – \BH_1) &= \BJ_{\textrm{s}} \\
\ncap \cdot (\BD_2 – \BD_1) &= \rho_{\textrm{s}} \\
\ncap \cdot (\BB_2 – \BB_1) &= \rho_{\textrm{m}\textrm{s}}.
\end{aligned}
}
\end{equation}

It is tempting to try to assemble these into a results expressed in terms of a four-vector surface current and composite STA bivector fields like the \( F = \BE + I c \BB \) that we can use for the free space Maxwell’s equation. Dimensionally, we need something with velocity in that mix, but what velocity should be used when the speed of the field propagation in each media is potentially different?

References

[1] Constantine A Balanis. Advanced engineering electromagnetics. Wiley New York, 1989.

Maxwell equation boundary conditions

September 6, 2016 math and physics play No comments , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

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Motivation

boundaryConditionsTwoSurfacesFig1

fig 1. Two surfaces normal to the interface.

Most electrodynamics textbooks either start with or contain a treatment of boundary value conditions. These typically involve evaluating Maxwell’s equations over areas or volumes of decreasing height, such as those illustrated in fig. 1, and fig. 2. These represent surfaces and volumes where the height is allowed to decrease to infinitesimal levels, and are traditionally used to find the boundary value constraints of the normal and tangential components of the electric and magnetic fields.

boundaryConditionsPillBoxFig2

fig 2. A pillbox volume encompassing the interface.

More advanced topics, such as evaluation of the Fresnel reflection and transmission equations, also rely on similar consideration of boundary value constraints. I’ve wondered for a long time how the Fresnel equations could be attacked by looking at the boundary conditions for the combined field \( F = \BE + I c \BB \), instead of the considering them separately.

A unified approach.

The Geometric Algebra (and relativistic tensor) formulations of Maxwell’s equations put the electric and magnetic fields on equal footings. It is in fact possible to specify the boundary value constraints on the fields without first separating Maxwell’s equations into their traditional forms. The starting point in Geometric Algebra is Maxwell’s equation, premultiplied by a stationary observer’s timelike basis vector

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellBoundaryConditions:20}
\gamma_0 \grad F = \inv{\epsilon_0 c} \gamma_0 J,
\end{equation}

or

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellBoundaryConditions:40}
\lr{ \partial_0 + \spacegrad} F = \frac{\rho}{\epsilon_0} – \frac{\BJ}{\epsilon_0}.
\end{equation}

The electrodynamic field \(F = \BE + I c \BB\) is a multivector in this spatial domain (whereas it is a bivector in the spacetime algebra domain), and has vector and bivector components. The product of the spatial gradient and the field can still be split into dot and curl components \(\spacegrad M = \spacegrad \cdot M + \spacegrad \wedge M \). If \(M = \sum M_i \), where \(M_i\) is an grade \(i\) blade, then we give this the Hestenes’ [1] definitions

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellBoundaryConditions:60}
\begin{aligned}
\spacegrad \cdot M &= \sum_i \gpgrade{\spacegrad M_i}{i-1} \\
\spacegrad \wedge M &= \sum_i \gpgrade{\spacegrad M_i}{i+1}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

With that said, Maxwell’s equation can be rearranged into a pair of multivector equations

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellBoundaryConditions:80}
\begin{aligned}
\spacegrad \cdot F &= \gpgrade{-\partial_0 F + \frac{\rho}{\epsilon_0} – \frac{\BJ}{\epsilon_0 c}}{0,1} \\
\spacegrad \wedge F &= \gpgrade{-\partial_0 F + \frac{\rho}{\epsilon_0} – \frac{\BJ}{\epsilon_0 c}}{2,3},
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The latter equation can be integrated with Stokes theorem, but we need to apply a duality transformation to the latter in order to apply Stokes to it

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellBoundaryConditions:120}
\begin{aligned}
\spacegrad \cdot F
&=
-I^2 \spacegrad \cdot F \\
&=
-I^2 \gpgrade{\spacegrad F}{0,1} \\
&=
-I \gpgrade{I \spacegrad F}{2,3} \\
&=
-I \spacegrad \wedge (IF),
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

so

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellBoundaryConditions:100}
\begin{aligned}
\spacegrad \wedge (I F) &= I \lr{ -\inv{c} \partial_t \BE + \frac{\rho}{\epsilon_0} – \frac{\BJ}{\epsilon_0 c} } \\
\spacegrad \wedge F &= -I \partial_t \BB.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Integrating each of these over the pillbox volume gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellBoundaryConditions:140}
\begin{aligned}
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot (I F)
&=
\int_{V} d^3 \Bx \cdot \lr{ I \lr{ -\inv{c} \partial_t \BE + \frac{\rho}{\epsilon_0} – \frac{\BJ}{\epsilon_0 c} } } \\
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot F
&=
– \partial_t \int_{V} d^3 \Bx \cdot \lr{ I \BB }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

In the absence of charges and currents on the surface, and if the height of the volume is reduced to zero, the volume integrals vanish, and only the upper surfaces of the pillbox contribute to the surface integrals.

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellBoundaryConditions:200}
\begin{aligned}
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot (I F) &= 0 \\
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot F &= 0.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

With a multivector \(F\) in the mix, the geometric meaning of these integrals is not terribly clear. They do describe the boundary conditions, but to see exactly what those are, we can now resort to the split of \(F\) into its electric and magnetic fields. Let’s look at the non-dual integral to start with

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellBoundaryConditions:160}
\begin{aligned}
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot F
&=
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot \lr{ \BE + I c \BB } \\
&=
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot \BE + I c d^2 \Bx \wedge \BB \\
&=
0.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

No component of \(\BE\) that is normal to the surface contributes to \(d^2 \Bx \cdot \BE \), whereas only components of \(\BB\) that are normal contribute to \(d^2 \Bx \wedge \BB \). That means that we must have tangential components of \(\BE\) and the normal components of \(\BB\) matching on the surfaces

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellBoundaryConditions:180}
\begin{aligned}
\lr{\BE_2 \wedge \ncap} \ncap – \lr{\BE_1 \wedge (-\ncap)} (-\ncap) &= 0 \\
\lr{\BB_2 \cdot \ncap} \ncap – \lr{\BB_1 \cdot (-\ncap)} (-\ncap) &= 0 .
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Similarly, for the dot product of the dual field, this is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellBoundaryConditions:220}
\begin{aligned}
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot (I F)
&=
\oint_{\partial V} d^2 \Bx \cdot (I \BE – c \BB) \\
&=
\oint_{\partial V} I d^2 \Bx \wedge \BE – c d^2 \Bx \cdot \BB.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

For this integral, only the normal components of \(\BE\) contribute, and only the tangential components of \(\BB\) contribute. This means that

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellBoundaryConditions:240}
\begin{aligned}
\lr{\BE_2 \cdot \ncap} \ncap – \lr{\BE_1 \cdot (-\ncap)} (-\ncap) &= 0 \\
\lr{\BB_2 \wedge \ncap} \ncap – \lr{\BB_1 \wedge (-\ncap)} (-\ncap) &= 0.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This is why we end up with a seemingly strange mix of tangential and normal components of the electric and magnetic fields. These constraints can be summarized as

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellBoundaryConditions:260}
\begin{aligned}
( \BE_2 – \BE_1 ) \cdot \ncap &= 0 \\
( \BE_2 – \BE_1 ) \wedge \ncap &= 0 \\
( \BB_2 – \BB_1 ) \cdot \ncap &= 0 \\
( \BB_2 – \BB_1 ) \wedge \ncap &= 0
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

These relationships are usually expressed in terms of all of \(\BE, \BD, \BB\) and \(\BH \). Because I’d started with Maxwell’s equations for free space, I don’t have the \( \epsilon \) and \( \mu \) factors that produce those more general relationships. Those more general boundary value relationships are usually the starting point for the Fresnel interface analysis. It is also possible to further generalize these relationships to include charges and currents on the surface.

References

[1] D. Hestenes. New Foundations for Classical Mechanics. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.

Stokes integrals for Maxwell’s equations in Geometric Algebra

September 4, 2016 math and physics play No comments , , , , , , , , , ,

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Recall that the relativistic form of Maxwell’s equation in Geometric Algebra is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:20}
\grad F = \inv{c \epsilon_0} J.
\end{equation}

where \( \grad = \gamma^\mu \partial_\mu \) is the spacetime gradient, and \( J = (c\rho, \BJ) = J^\mu \gamma_\mu \) is the four (vector) current density. The pseudoscalar for the space is denoted \( I = \gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 \gamma_3 \), where the basis elements satisfy \( \gamma_0^2 = 1 = -\gamma_k^2 \), and a dual basis satisfies \( \gamma_\mu \cdot \gamma^\nu = \delta_\mu^\nu \). The electromagnetic field \( F \) is a composite multivector \( F = \BE + I c \BB \). This is actually a bivector because spatial vectors have a bivector representation in the space time algebra of the form \( \BE = E^k \gamma_k \gamma_0 \).

Previously, I wrote out the Stokes integrals for Maxwell’s equation in GA form using some three parameter spacetime manifold volumes. This time I’m going to use two and three parameter spatial volumes, again with the Geometric Algebra form of Stokes theorem.

Multiplication by a timelike unit vector transforms Maxwell’s equation from their relativistic form. When that vector is the standard basis timelike unit vector \( \gamma_0 \), we obtain Maxwell’s equations from the point of view of a stationary observer

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesMaxwellSpaceTimeSplit:40}
\lr{\partial_0 + \spacegrad} \lr{ \BE + c I \BB } = \inv{\epsilon_0 c} \lr{ c \rho – \BJ },
\end{equation}

Extracting the scalar, vector, bivector, and trivector grades respectively, we have
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesMaxwellSpaceTimeSplit:60}
\begin{aligned}
\spacegrad \cdot \BE &= \frac{\rho}{\epsilon_0} \\
c I \spacegrad \wedge \BB &= -\partial_0 \BE – \inv{\epsilon_0 c} \BJ \\
\spacegrad \wedge \BE &= – I c \partial_0 \BB \\
c I \spacegrad \cdot \BB &= 0.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Each of these can be written as a curl equation

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesMaxwellSpaceTimeSplit:80}
\boxed{
\begin{aligned}
\spacegrad \wedge (I \BE) &= I \frac{\rho}{\epsilon_0} \\
\inv{\mu_0} \spacegrad \wedge \BB &= \epsilon_0 I \partial_t \BE + I \BJ \\
\spacegrad \wedge \BE &= -I \partial_t \BB \\
\spacegrad \wedge (I \BB) &= 0,
\end{aligned}
}
\end{equation}

a form that allows for direct application of Stokes integrals. The first and last of these require a three parameter volume element, whereas the two bivector grade equations can be integrated using either two or three parameter volume elements. Suppose that we have can parameterize the space with parameters \( u, v, w \), for which the gradient has the representation

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesMaxwellSpaceTimeSplit:100}
\spacegrad = \Bx^u \partial_u + \Bx^v \partial_v + \Bx^w \partial_w,
\end{equation}

but we integrate over a two parameter subset of this space spanned by \( \Bx(u,v) \), with area element

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesMaxwellSpaceTimeSplit:120}
\begin{aligned}
d^2 \Bx
&= d\Bx_u \wedge d\Bx_v \\
&=
\PD{u}{\Bx}
\wedge
\PD{v}{\Bx}
\,du dv \\
&=
\Bx_u
\wedge
\Bx_v
\,du dv,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

as illustrated in fig. 1.

 

twoParameterAreaElementFig1

fig. 1. Two parameter manifold.

Our curvilinear coordinates \( \Bx_u, \Bx_v, \Bx_w \) are dual to the reciprocal basis \( \Bx^u, \Bx^v, \Bx^w \), but we won’t actually have to calculate that reciprocal basis. Instead we need only know that it can be calculated and is defined by the relations \( \Bx_a \cdot \Bx^b = \delta_a^b \). Knowing that we can reduce (say),

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesMaxwellSpaceTimeSplit:140}
\begin{aligned}
d^2 \Bx \cdot ( \spacegrad \wedge \BE )
&=
d^2 \Bx \cdot ( \Bx^a \partial_a \wedge \BE ) \\
&=
(\Bx_u \wedge \Bx_v) \cdot ( \Bx^a \wedge \partial_a \BE ) \,du dv \\
&=
(((\Bx_u \wedge \Bx_v) \cdot \Bx^a) \cdot \partial_a \BE \,du dv \\
&=
d\Bx_u \cdot \partial_v \BE \,dv
-d\Bx_v \cdot \partial_u \BE \,du,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Because each of the differentials, for example \( d\Bx_u = (\PDi{u}{\Bx}) du \), is calculated with the other (i.e.\( v \)) held constant, this is directly integrable, leaving

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesMaxwellSpaceTimeSplit:160}
\begin{aligned}
\int d^2 \Bx \cdot ( \spacegrad \wedge \BE )
&=
\int \evalrange{\lr{d\Bx_u \cdot \BE}}{v=0}{v=1}
-\int \evalrange{\lr{d\Bx_v \cdot \BE}}{u=0}{u=1} \\
&=
\oint d\Bx \cdot \BE.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

That direct integration of one of the parameters, while the others are held constant, is the basic idea behind Stokes theorem.

The pseudoscalar grade Maxwell’s equations from \ref{eqn:stokesMaxwellSpaceTimeSplit:80} require a three parameter volume element to apply Stokes theorem to. Again, allowing for curvilinear coordinates such a differential expands as

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesMaxwellSpaceTimeSplit:180}
\begin{aligned}
d^3 \Bx \cdot (\spacegrad \wedge (I\BB))
&=
(( \Bx_u \wedge \Bx_v \wedge \Bx_w ) \cdot \Bx^a ) \cdot \partial_a (I\BB) \,du dv dw \\
&=
(d\Bx_u \wedge d\Bx_v) \cdot \partial_w (I\BB) dw
+(d\Bx_v \wedge d\Bx_w) \cdot \partial_u (I\BB) du
+(d\Bx_w \wedge d\Bx_u) \cdot \partial_v (I\BB) dv.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Like the two parameter volume, this is directly integrable

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesMaxwellSpaceTimeSplit:200}
\int
d^3 \Bx \cdot (\spacegrad \wedge (I\BB))
=
\int \evalbar{(d\Bx_u \wedge d\Bx_v) \cdot (I\BB) }{\Delta w}
+\int \evalbar{(d\Bx_v \wedge d\Bx_w) \cdot (I\BB)}{\Delta u}
+\int \evalbar{(d\Bx_w \wedge d\Bx_u) \cdot (I\BB)}{\Delta v}.
\end{equation}

After some thought (or a craft project such as that of fig. 2) is can be observed that this is conceptually an oriented surface integral

threeParameterSurfaceFig2

fig. 2. Oriented three parameter surface.

Noting that

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesMaxwellSpaceTimeSplit:221}
\begin{aligned}
d^2 \Bx \cdot (I\Bf)
&= \gpgradezero{ d^2 \Bx I B } \\
&= I (d^2\Bx \wedge \Bf)
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

we can now write down the results of application of Stokes theorem to each of Maxwell’s equations in their curl forms

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesMaxwellSpaceTimeSplit:220}
\boxed{
\begin{aligned}
\oint d\Bx \cdot \BE &= -I \partial_t \int d^2 \Bx \wedge \BB \\
\inv{\mu_0} \oint d\Bx \cdot \BB &= \epsilon_0 I \partial_t \int d^2 \Bx \wedge \BE + I \int d^2 \Bx \wedge \BJ \\
\oint d^2 \Bx \wedge \BE &= \inv{\epsilon_0} \int (d^3 \Bx \cdot I) \rho \\
\oint d^2 \Bx \wedge \BB &= 0.
\end{aligned}
}
\end{equation}

In the three parameter surface integrals the specific meaning to apply to \( d^2 \Bx \wedge \Bf \) is
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:stokesMaxwellSpaceTimeSplit:240}
\oint d^2 \Bx \wedge \Bf
=
\int \evalbar{\lr{d\Bx_u \wedge d\Bx_v \wedge \Bf}}{\Delta w}
+\int \evalbar{\lr{d\Bx_v \wedge d\Bx_w \wedge \Bf}}{\Delta u}
+\int \evalbar{\lr{d\Bx_w \wedge d\Bx_u \wedge \Bf}}{\Delta v}.
\end{equation}

Note that in each case only the component of the vector \( \Bf \) that is projected onto the normal to the area element contributes.

Application of Stokes Theorem to the Maxwell equation

September 3, 2016 math and physics play 1 comment , , , , , , , , , , , ,

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The relativistic form of Maxwell’s equation in Geometric Algebra is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:20}
\grad F = \inv{c \epsilon_0} J,
\end{equation}

where \( \grad = \gamma^\mu \partial_\mu \) is the spacetime gradient, and \( J = (c\rho, \BJ) = J^\mu \gamma_\mu \) is the four (vector) current density. The pseudoscalar for the space is denoted \( I = \gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 \gamma_3 \), where the basis elements satisfy \( \gamma_0^2 = 1 = -\gamma_k^2 \), and a dual basis satisfies \( \gamma_\mu \cdot \gamma^\nu = \delta_\mu^\nu \). The electromagnetic field \( F \) is a composite multivector \( F = \BE + I c \BB \). This is actually a bivector because spatial vectors have a bivector representation in the space time algebra of the form \( \BE = E^k \gamma_k \gamma_0 \).

A dual representation, with \( F = I G \) is also possible

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:60}
\grad G = \frac{I}{c \epsilon_0} J.
\end{equation}

Either form of Maxwell’s equation can be split into grade one and three components. The standard (non-dual) form is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:40}
\begin{aligned}
\grad \cdot F &= \inv{c \epsilon_0} J \\
\grad \wedge F &= 0,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

and the dual form is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:41}
\begin{aligned}
\grad \cdot G &= 0 \\
\grad \wedge G &= \frac{I}{c \epsilon_0} J.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

In both cases a potential representation \( F = \grad \wedge A \), where \( A \) is a four vector potential can be used to kill off the non-current equation. Such a potential representation reduces Maxwell’s equation to

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:80}
\grad \cdot F = \inv{c \epsilon_0} J,
\end{equation}

or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:100}
\grad \wedge G = \frac{I}{c \epsilon_0} J.
\end{equation}

In both cases, these reduce to
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:120}
\grad^2 A – \grad \lr{ \grad \cdot A } = \inv{c \epsilon_0} J.
\end{equation}

This can clearly be further simplified by using the Lorentz gauge, where \( \grad \cdot A = 0 \). However, the aim for now is to try applying Stokes theorem to Maxwell’s equation. The dual form \ref{eqn:maxwellStokes:100} has the curl structure required for the application of Stokes. Suppose that we evaluate this curl over the three parameter volume element \( d^3 x = i\, dx^0 dx^1 dx^2 \), where \( i = \gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 \) is the unit pseudoscalar for the spacetime volume element.

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:101}
\begin{aligned}
\int_V d^3 x \cdot \lr{ \grad \wedge G }
&=
\int_V d^3 x \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\mu \wedge \partial_\mu G } \\
&=
\int_V \lr{ d^3 x \cdot \gamma^\mu } \cdot \partial_\mu G \\
&=
\sum_{\mu \ne 3} \int_V \lr{ d^3 x \cdot \gamma^\mu } \cdot \partial_\mu G.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This uses the distibution identity \( A_s \cdot (a \wedge A_r) = (A_s \cdot a) \cdot A_r \) which holds for blades \( A_s, A_r \) provided \( s > r > 0 \). Observe that only the component of the gradient that lies in the tangent space of the three volume manifold contributes to the integral, allowing the gradient to be used in the Stokes integral instead of the vector derivative (see: [1]).
Defining the the surface area element

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:140}
\begin{aligned}
d^2 x
&= \sum_{\mu \ne 3} i \cdot \gamma^\mu \inv{dx^\mu} d^3 x \\
&= \gamma_1 \gamma_2 dx dy
+ c \gamma_2 \gamma_0 dt dy
+ c \gamma_0 \gamma_1 dt dx,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Stokes theorem for this volume element is now completely specified

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:200}
\int_V d^3 x \cdot \lr{ \grad \wedge G }
=
\int_{\partial V} d^2 \cdot G.
\end{equation}

Application to the dual Maxwell equation gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:160}
\int_{\partial V} d^2 x \cdot G
= \inv{c \epsilon_0} \int_V d^3 x \cdot (I J).
\end{equation}

After some manipulation, this can be restated in the non-dual form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:180}
\boxed{
\int_{\partial V} \inv{I} d^2 x \wedge F
= \frac{1}{c \epsilon_0 I} \int_V d^3 x \wedge J.
}
\end{equation}

It can be demonstrated that using this with each of the standard basis spacetime 3-volume elements recovers Gauss’s law and the Ampere-Maxwell equation. So, what happened to Faraday’s law and Gauss’s law for magnetism? With application of Stokes to the curl equation from \ref{eqn:maxwellStokes:40}, those equations take the form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:240}
\boxed{
\int_{\partial V} d^2 x \cdot F = 0.
}
\end{equation}

Problem 1:

Demonstrate that the Ampere-Maxwell equation and Gauss’s law can be recovered from the trivector (curl) equation \ref{eqn:maxwellStokes:100}.

Answer

The curl equation is a trivector on each side, so dotting it with each of the four possible trivectors \( \gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2, \gamma_0 \gamma_2 \gamma_3, \gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_3, \gamma_1 \gamma_2 \gamma_3 \) will give four different scalar equations. For example, dotting with \( \gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 \), we have for the curl side

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:460}
\begin{aligned}
\lr{ \gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 } \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\mu \wedge \partial_\mu G }
&=
\lr{ \lr{ \gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 } \cdot \gamma^\mu } \cdot \partial_\mu G \\
&=
(\gamma_0 \gamma_1) \cdot \partial_2 G
+(\gamma_2 \gamma_0) \cdot \partial_1 G
+(\gamma_1 \gamma_2) \cdot \partial_0 G,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

and for the current side, we have

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:480}
\begin{aligned}
\inv{\epsilon_0 c} \lr{ \gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 } \cdot \lr{ I J }
&=
\inv{\epsilon_0 c} \gpgradezero{ \gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 (\gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 \gamma_3) J } \\
&=
\inv{\epsilon_0 c} \gpgradezero{ -\gamma_3 J } \\
&=
\inv{\epsilon_0 c} \gamma^3 \cdot J \\
&=
\inv{\epsilon_0 c} J^3,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

so we have
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:500}
(\gamma_0 \gamma_1) \cdot \partial_2 G
+(\gamma_2 \gamma_0) \cdot \partial_1 G
+(\gamma_1 \gamma_2) \cdot \partial_0 G
=
\inv{\epsilon_0 c} J^3.
\end{equation}

Similarily, dotting with \( \gamma_{013}, \gamma_{023}, and \gamma_{123} \) respectively yields
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:620}
\begin{aligned}
\gamma_{01} \cdot \partial_3 G + \gamma_{30} \partial_1 G + \gamma_{13} \partial_0 G &= – \inv{\epsilon_0 c} J^2 \\
\gamma_{02} \cdot \partial_3 G + \gamma_{30} \partial_2 G + \gamma_{23} \partial_0 G &= \inv{\epsilon_0 c} J^1 \\
\gamma_{12} \cdot \partial_3 G + \gamma_{31} \partial_2 G + \gamma_{23} \partial_1 G &= -\inv{\epsilon_0} \rho.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Expanding the dual electromagnetic field, first in terms of the spatial vectors, and then in the space time basis, we have
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:520}
\begin{aligned}
G
&= -I F \\
&= -I \lr{ \BE + I c \BB } \\
&= -I \BE + c \BB. \\
&= -I \BE + c B^k \gamma_k \gamma_0 \\
&= \inv{2} \epsilon^{r s t} \gamma_r \gamma_s E^t + c B^k \gamma_k \gamma_0.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

So, dotting with a spatial vector will pick up a component of \( \BB \), we have
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:540}
\begin{aligned}
\lr{ \gamma_m \wedge \gamma_0 } \cdot \partial_\mu G
&=
\lr{ \gamma_m \wedge \gamma_0 } \cdot \partial_\mu \lr{
\inv{2} \epsilon^{r s t} \gamma_r \gamma_s E^t + c B^k \gamma_k \gamma_0
} \\
&=
c \partial_\mu B^k
\gpgradezero{
\gamma_m \gamma_0 \gamma_k \gamma_0
} \\
&=
c \partial_\mu B^k
\gpgradezero{
\gamma_m \gamma_0 \gamma_0 \gamma^k
} \\
&=
c \partial_\mu B^k
\delta_m^k \\
&=
c \partial_\mu B^m.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Written out explicitly the electric field contributions to \( G \) are

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:560}
\begin{aligned}
-I \BE
&=
-\gamma_{0123k0} E^k \\
&=
-\gamma_{123k} E^k \\
&=
\left\{
\begin{array}{l l}
\gamma_{12} E^3 & \quad \mbox{\( k = 3 \)} \\
\gamma_{31} E^2 & \quad \mbox{\( k = 2 \)} \\
\gamma_{23} E^1 & \quad \mbox{\( k = 1 \)} \\
\end{array}
\right.,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

so
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:580}
\begin{aligned}
\gamma_{23} \cdot G &= -E^1 \\
\gamma_{31} \cdot G &= -E^2 \\
\gamma_{12} \cdot G &= -E^3.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

We now have the pieces required to expand \ref{eqn:maxwellStokes:500} and \ref{eqn:maxwellStokes:620}, which are respectively

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:501}
\begin{aligned}
– c \partial_2 B^1 + c \partial_1 B^2 – \partial_0 E^3 &= \inv{\epsilon_0 c} J^3 \\
– c \partial_3 B^1 + c \partial_1 B^3 + \partial_0 E^2 &= -\inv{\epsilon_0 c} J^2 \\
– c \partial_3 B^2 + c \partial_2 B^3 – \partial_0 E^1 &= \inv{\epsilon_0 c} J^1 \\
– \partial_3 E^3 – \partial_2 E^2 – \partial_1 E^1 &= – \inv{\epsilon_0} \rho
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

which are the components of the Ampere-Maxwell equation, and Gauss’s law

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:600}
\begin{aligned}
\inv{\mu_0} \spacegrad \cross \BB – \epsilon_0 \PD{t}{\BE} &= \BJ \\
\spacegrad \cdot \BE &= \frac{\rho}{\epsilon_0}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Problem 2:

Prove \ref{eqn:maxwellStokes:180}.

Answer

The proof just requires the expansion of the dot products using scalar selection

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:260}
\begin{aligned}
d^2 x \cdot G
&=
\gpgradezero{ d^2 x (-I) F } \\
&=
-\gpgradezero{ I d^2 x F } \\
&=
-I \lr{ d^2 x \wedge F },
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

and
for the three volume dot product

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:280}
\begin{aligned}
d^3 x \cdot (I J)
&=
\gpgradezero{
d^3 x\, I J
} \\
&=
-\gpgradezero{
I d^3 x\, J
} \\
&=
-I \lr{ d^3 x \wedge J }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Problem 3:

Using each of the four possible spacetime volume elements, write out the components of the Stokes integral
\ref{eqn:maxwellStokes:180}.

Answer

The four possible volume and associated area elements are
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:220}
\begin{aligned}
d^3 x = c \gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 dt dx dy & \qquad d^2 x = \gamma_1 \gamma_2 dx dy + c \gamma_2 \gamma_0 dy dt + c \gamma_0 \gamma_1 dt dx \\
d^3 x = c \gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_3 dt dx dz & \qquad d^2 x = \gamma_1 \gamma_3 dx dz + c \gamma_3 \gamma_0 dz dt + c \gamma_0 \gamma_1 dt dx \\
d^3 x = c \gamma_0 \gamma_2 \gamma_3 dt dy dz & \qquad d^2 x = \gamma_2 \gamma_3 dy dz + c \gamma_3 \gamma_0 dz dt + c \gamma_0 \gamma_2 dt dy \\
d^3 x = \gamma_1 \gamma_2 \gamma_3 dx dy dz & \qquad d^2 x = \gamma_1 \gamma_2 dx dy + \gamma_2 \gamma_3 dy dz + c \gamma_3 \gamma_1 dz dx \\
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Wedging the area element with \( F \) will produce pseudoscalar multiples of the various \( \BE \) and \( \BB \) components, but a recipe for these components is required.

First note that for \( k \ne 0 \), the wedge \( \gamma_k \wedge \gamma_0 \wedge F \) will just select components of \( \BB \). This can be seen first by simplifying

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:300}
\begin{aligned}
I \BB
&=
\gamma_{0 1 2 3} B^m \gamma_{m 0} \\
&=
\left\{
\begin{array}{l l}
\gamma_{3 2} B^1 & \quad \mbox{\( m = 1 \)} \\
\gamma_{1 3} B^2 & \quad \mbox{\( m = 2 \)} \\
\gamma_{2 1} B^3 & \quad \mbox{\( m = 3 \)}
\end{array}
\right.,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

or

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:320}
I \BB = – \epsilon_{a b c} \gamma_{a b} B^c.
\end{equation}

From this it follows that

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:340}
\gamma_k \wedge \gamma_0 \wedge F = I c B^k.
\end{equation}

The electric field components are easier to pick out. Those are selected by

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:360}
\begin{aligned}
\gamma_m \wedge \gamma_n \wedge F
&= \gamma_m \wedge \gamma_n \wedge \gamma_k \wedge \gamma_0 E^k \\
&= -I E^k \epsilon_{m n k}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The respective volume element wedge products with \( J \) are

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:400}
\begin{aligned}
\inv{I} d^3 x \wedge J = \inv{c \epsilon_0} J^3
\inv{I} d^3 x \wedge J = \inv{c \epsilon_0} J^2
\inv{I} d^3 x \wedge J = \inv{c \epsilon_0} J^1,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

and the respective sum of surface area elements wedged with the electromagnetic field are

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:380}
\begin{aligned}
\inv{I} d^2 x \wedge F &= – \evalbar{E^3}{c \Delta t} dx dy + c \lr{ \evalbar{B^2}{\Delta x} dy – \evalbar{B^1}{\Delta y} dx } dt \\
\inv{I} d^2 x \wedge F &= \evalbar{E^2}{c \Delta t} dx dz + c \lr{ \evalbar{B^3}{\Delta x} dz – \evalbar{B^1}{\Delta z} dx } dt \\
\inv{I} d^2 x \wedge F &= – \evalbar{E^1}{c \Delta t} dy dz + c \lr{ \evalbar{B^3}{\Delta y} dz – \evalbar{B^2}{\Delta z} dy } dt \\
\inv{I} d^2 x \wedge F &= – \evalbar{E^3}{\Delta z} dy dx – \evalbar{E^2}{\Delta y} dx dz – \evalbar{E^1}{\Delta x} dz dy,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

so
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:maxwellStokes:381}
\begin{aligned}
\int_{\partial V} – \evalbar{E^3}{c \Delta t} dx dy + c \lr{ \evalbar{B^2}{\Delta x} dy – \evalbar{B^1}{\Delta y} dx } dt &=
c \int_V dx dy dt \inv{c \epsilon_0} J^3 \\
\int_{\partial V} \evalbar{E^2}{c \Delta t} dx dz + c \lr{ \evalbar{B^3}{\Delta x} dz – \evalbar{B^1}{\Delta z} dx } dt &=
-c \int_V dx dy dt \inv{c \epsilon_0} J^2 \\
\int_{\partial V} – \evalbar{E^1}{c \Delta t} dy dz + c \lr{ \evalbar{B^3}{\Delta y} dz – \evalbar{B^2}{\Delta z} dy } dt &=
c \int_V dx dy dt \inv{c \epsilon_0} J^1 \\
\int_{\partial V} – \evalbar{E^3}{\Delta z} dy dx – \evalbar{E^2}{\Delta y} dx dz – \evalbar{E^1}{\Delta x} dz dy &=
-\int_V dx dy dz \inv{\epsilon_0} \rho.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Observe that if the volume elements are taken to their infinesimal limits, we recover the traditional differential forms of the Ampere-Maxwell and Gauss’s law equations.

References

[1] A. Macdonald. Vector and Geometric Calculus. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012.

Updated notes for ece1229 antenna theory

March 16, 2015 ece1229 No comments , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

I’ve now posted a first update of my notes for the antenna theory course that I am taking this term at UofT.

Unlike most of the other classes I have taken, I am not attempting to take comprehensive notes for this class. The class is taught on slides which go by faster than I can easily take notes for (and some of which match the textbook closely). In class I have annotated my copy of textbook with little details instead. This set of notes contains musings of details that were unclear, or in some cases, details that were provided in class, but are not in the text (and too long to pencil into my book), as well as some notes Geometric Algebra formalism for Maxwell’s equations with magnetic sources (something I’ve encountered for the first time in any real detail in this class).

The notes compilation linked above includes all of the following separate notes, some of which have been posted separately on this blog:

Maxwell’s equations in tensor form with magnetic sources

February 22, 2015 ece1229 No comments , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

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Following the principle that one should always relate new formalisms to things previously learned, I’d like to know what Maxwell’s equations look like in tensor form when magnetic sources are included. As a verification that the previous Geometric Algebra form of Maxwell’s equation that includes magnetic sources is correct, I’ll start with the GA form of Maxwell’s equation, find the tensor form, and then verify that the vector form of Maxwell’s equations can be recovered from the tensor form.

Tensor form

With four-vector potential \( A \), and bivector electromagnetic field \( F = \grad \wedge A \), the GA form of Maxwell’s equation is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:20}
\grad F = \frac{J}{\epsilon_0 c} + M I.
\end{equation}

The left hand side can be unpacked into vector and trivector terms \( \grad F = \grad \cdot F + \grad \wedge F \), which happens to also separate the sources nicely as a side effect

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:60}
\grad \cdot F = \frac{J}{\epsilon_0 c}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:80}
\grad \wedge F = M I.
\end{equation}

The electric source equation can be unpacked into tensor form by dotting with the four vector basis vectors. With the usual definition \( F^{\alpha \beta} = \partial^\alpha A^\beta – \partial^\beta A^\alpha \), that is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:100}
\begin{aligned}
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \grad \cdot F }
&=
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \grad \cdot \lr{ \grad \wedge A } } \\
&=
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \partial_\nu \cdot
\lr{ \gamma_\alpha \partial^\alpha \wedge \gamma_\beta A^\beta } } \\
&=
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \cdot \lr{ \gamma_\alpha \wedge \gamma_\beta
} } \partial_\nu \partial^\alpha A^\beta \\
&=
\inv{2}
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \cdot \lr{ \gamma_\alpha \wedge \gamma_\beta } }
\partial_\nu F^{\alpha \beta} \\
&=
\inv{2} \delta^{\nu \mu}_{[\alpha \beta]} \partial_\nu F^{\alpha \beta} \\
&=
\inv{2} \partial_\nu F^{\nu \mu}

\inv{2} \partial_\nu F^{\mu \nu} \\
&=
\partial_\nu F^{\nu \mu}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

So the first tensor equation is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:120}
\boxed{
\partial_\nu F^{\nu \mu} = \inv{c \epsilon_0} J^\mu.
}
\end{equation}

To unpack the magnetic source portion of Maxwell’s equation, put it first into dual form, so that it has four vectors on each side

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:140}
\begin{aligned}
M
&= – \lr{ \grad \wedge F} I \\
&= -\frac{1}{2} \lr{ \grad F + F \grad } I \\
&= -\frac{1}{2} \lr{ \grad F I – F I \grad } \\
&= – \grad \cdot \lr{ F I }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Dotting with \( \gamma^\mu \) gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:160}
\begin{aligned}
M^\mu
&= \gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \grad \cdot \lr{ – F I } } \\
&= \gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \partial_\nu \cdot \lr{ -\frac{1}{2}
\gamma^\alpha \wedge \gamma^\beta I F_{\alpha \beta} } } \\
&= -\inv{2}
\gpgradezero{
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\alpha \wedge \gamma^\beta I } }
}
\partial_\nu F_{\alpha \beta}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This scalar grade selection is a complete antisymmetrization of the indexes

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:180}
\begin{aligned}
\gpgradezero{
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\alpha \wedge \gamma^\beta I } }
}
&=
\gpgradezero{
\gamma^\mu \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\nu \cdot \lr{
\gamma^\alpha \gamma^\beta
\gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 \gamma_3
} }
} \\
&=
\gpgradezero{
\gamma_0 \gamma_1 \gamma_2 \gamma_3
\gamma^\mu \gamma^\nu \gamma^\alpha \gamma^\beta
} \\
&=
\delta^{\mu \nu \alpha \beta}_{3 2 1 0} \\
&=
\epsilon^{\mu \nu \alpha \beta },
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

so the magnetic source portion of Maxwell’s equation, in tensor form, is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:200}
\boxed{
\inv{2} \epsilon^{\nu \alpha \beta \mu}
\partial_\nu F_{\alpha \beta}
=
M^\mu.
}
\end{equation}

Relating the tensor to the fields

The electromagnetic field has been identified with the electric and magnetic fields by

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:220}
F = \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} + c \mu_0 \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} I ,
\end{equation}

or in coordinates

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:240}
\inv{2} \gamma_\mu \wedge \gamma_\nu F^{\mu \nu}
= E^a \gamma_a \gamma_0 + c \mu_0 H^a \gamma_a \gamma_0 I.
\end{equation}

By forming the dot product sequence \( F^{\alpha \beta} = \gamma^\beta \cdot \lr{ \gamma^\alpha \cdot F } \), the electric and magnetic field components can be related to the tensor components. The electric field components follow by inspection and are

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:260}
E^b = \gamma^0 \cdot \lr{ \gamma^b \cdot F } = F^{b 0}.
\end{equation}

The magnetic field relation to the tensor components follow from

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:280}
\begin{aligned}
F^{r s}
&= F_{r s} \\
&= \gamma_s \cdot \lr{ \gamma_r \cdot \lr{ c \mu_0 H^a \gamma_a \gamma_0 I
} } \\
&=
c \mu_0 H^a \gpgradezero{ \gamma_s \gamma_r \gamma_a \gamma_0 I } \\
&=
c \mu_0 H^a \gpgradezero{ -\gamma^0 \gamma^1 \gamma^2 \gamma^3
\gamma_s \gamma_r \gamma_a \gamma_0 } \\
&=
c \mu_0 H^a \gpgradezero{ -\gamma^1 \gamma^2 \gamma^3
\gamma_s \gamma_r \gamma_a } \\
&=
– c \mu_0 H^a \delta^{[3 2 1]}_{s r a} \\
&=
c \mu_0 H^a \epsilon_{ s r a }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Expanding this for each pair of spacelike coordinates gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:320}
F^{1 2} = c \mu_0 H^3 \epsilon_{ 2 1 3 } = – c \mu_0 H^3
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:340}
F^{2 3} = c \mu_0 H^1 \epsilon_{ 3 2 1 } = – c \mu_0 H^1
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:360}
F^{3 1} = c \mu_0 H^2 \epsilon_{ 1 3 2 } = – c \mu_0 H^2,
\end{equation}

or

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:380}
\boxed{
\begin{aligned}
E^1 &= F^{1 0} \\
E^2 &= F^{2 0} \\
E^3 &= F^{3 0} \\
H^1 &= -\inv{c \mu_0} F^{2 3} \\
H^2 &= -\inv{c \mu_0} F^{3 1} \\
H^3 &= -\inv{c \mu_0} F^{1 2}.
\end{aligned}
}
\end{equation}

Recover the vector equations from the tensor equations

Starting with the non-dual Maxwell tensor equation, expanding the timelike index gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:480}
\begin{aligned}
\inv{c \epsilon_0} J^0
&= \inv{\epsilon_0} \rho \\
&=
\partial_\nu F^{\nu 0} \\
&=
\partial_1 F^{1 0}
+\partial_2 F^{2 0}
+\partial_3 F^{3 0}
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This is Gauss’s law

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:500}
\boxed{
\spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}}
=
\rho/\epsilon_0.
}
\end{equation}

For a spacelike index, any one is representive. Expanding index 1 gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:520}
\begin{aligned}
\inv{c \epsilon_0} J^1
&= \partial_\nu F^{\nu 1} \\
&= \inv{c} \partial_t F^{0 1}
+ \partial_2 F^{2 1}
+ \partial_3 F^{3 1} \\
&= -\inv{c} E^1
+ \partial_2 (c \mu_0 H^3)
+ \partial_3 (-c \mu_0 H^2) \\
&=
\lr{ -\inv{c} \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}}} + c \mu_0 \spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} } \cdot \Be_1.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Extending this to the other indexes and multiplying through by \( \epsilon_0 c \) recovers the Ampere-Maxwell equation (assuming linear media)

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:540}
\boxed{
\spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} = \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}} + \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{D}}}.
}
\end{equation}

The expansion of the 0th free (timelike) index of the dual Maxwell tensor equation is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:400}
\begin{aligned}
M^0
&=
\inv{2} \epsilon^{\nu \alpha \beta 0}
\partial_\nu F_{\alpha \beta} \\
&=
-\inv{2} \epsilon^{0 \nu \alpha \beta}
\partial_\nu F_{\alpha \beta} \\
&=
-\inv{2}
\lr{
\partial_1 (F_{2 3} – F_{3 2})
+\partial_2 (F_{3 1} – F_{1 3})
+\partial_3 (F_{1 2} – F_{2 1})
} \\
&=

\lr{
\partial_1 F_{2 3}
+\partial_2 F_{3 1}
+\partial_3 F_{1 2}
} \\
&=

\lr{
\partial_1 (- c \mu_0 H^1 ) +
\partial_2 (- c \mu_0 H^2 ) +
\partial_3 (- c \mu_0 H^3 )
},
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

but \( M^0 = c \rho_m \), giving us Gauss’s law for magnetism (with magnetic charge density included)

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:420}
\boxed{
\spacegrad \cdot \boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}} = \rho_m/\mu_0.
}
\end{equation}

For the spacelike indexes of the dual Maxwell equation, only one need be computed (say 1), and cyclic permutation will provide the rest. That is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:440}
\begin{aligned}
M^1
&= \inv{2} \epsilon^{\nu \alpha \beta 1} \partial_\nu F_{\alpha \beta} \\
&=
\inv{2} \lr{ \partial_2 \lr{F_{3 0} – F_{0 3}} }
+\inv{2} \lr{ \partial_3 \lr{F_{0 2} – F_{0 2}} }
+\inv{2} \lr{ \partial_0 \lr{F_{2 3} – F_{3 2}} } \\
&=
– \partial_2 F^{3 0}
+ \partial_3 F^{2 0}
+ \partial_0 F_{2 3} \\
&=
-\partial_2 E^3 + \partial_3 E^2 + \inv{c} \PD{t}{} \lr{ – c \mu_0 H^1 } \\
&= – \lr{ \spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} + \mu_0 \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}}} } \cdot \Be_1.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Extending this to the rest of the coordinates gives the Maxwell-Faraday equation (as extended to include magnetic current density sources)

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:gaMagneticSourcesToTensorToVector:460}
\boxed{
\spacegrad \cross \boldsymbol{\mathcal{E}} = -\boldsymbol{\mathcal{M}} – \mu_0 \PD{t}{\boldsymbol{\mathcal{H}}}.
}
\end{equation}

This takes things full circle, going from the vector differential Maxwell’s equations, to the Geometric Algebra form of Maxwell’s equation, to Maxwell’s equations in tensor form, and back to the vector form. Not only is the tensor form of Maxwell’s equations with magnetic sources now known, the translation from the tensor and vector formalism has also been verified, and miraculously no signs or factors of 2 were lost or gained in the process.