## PHY2403H Quantum Field Theory. Lecture 22: Dirac sea, charges, angular momentum, spin, U(1) symmetries, electrons and positrons. Taught by Prof. Erich Poppitz

This post is a synopsis of the material from the second last lecture of QFT I. I missed that class, but worked from notes kindly provided by Emily Tyhurst, and Stefan Divic, filling in enough details that it made sense to me.

[Click here for an unabrided PDF of my full notes on this day’s lecture material.]

Topics covered include

• The Hamiltonian action on single particle states showed that the Hamiltonian was an energy eigenoperator
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture22:140}
H \ket{\Bp, r}
=
\omega_\Bp \ket{\Bp, r}.
\end{equation}
• The conserved Noether current and charge for spatial translations, the momentum operator, was found to be
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:momentumDirac:260}
\BP =
\int d^3 x
\end{equation}
which could be written in creation and anhillation operator form as
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:momentumDirac:261}
\BP = \sum_{s = 1}^2
\int \frac{d^3 q}{(2\pi)^3} \Bp \lr{
a_\Bp^{s\dagger}
a_\Bp^{s}
+
b_\Bp^{s\dagger}
b_\Bp^{s}
}.
\end{equation}
Single particle states were found to be the eigenvectors of this operator, with momentum eigenvalues
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:momentumDirac:262}
\BP a_\Bq^{s\dagger} \ket{0} = \Bq (a_\Bq^{s\dagger} \ket{0}).
\end{equation}
• The conserved Noether current and charge for a rotation was found. That charge is
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture22:920}
\BJ = \int d^3 x \Psi^\dagger(x) \lr{ \underbrace{\Bx \cross (-i \spacegrad)}_{\text{orbital angular momentum}} + \inv{2} \underbrace{\mathbf{1} \otimes \Bsigma}_{\text{spin angular momentum}} } \Psi,
\end{equation}
where
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture22:260}
\mathbf{1} \otimes \Bsigma =
\begin{bmatrix}
\Bsigma & 0 \\
0 & \Bsigma
\end{bmatrix},
\end{equation}
which has distinct orbital and spin angular momentum components. Unlike NRQM, we see both types of angular momentum as components of a single operator. It is argued in  that for a particle at rest the single particle state is an eigenvector of this operator, with eigenvalues $$\pm 1/2$$ — the Fermion spin eigenvalues!
• We examined two $$U(1)$$ global symmetries. The Noether charge for the “vector” $$U(1)$$ symmetry is
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture22:380}
Q
=
\int \frac{d^3 q}{(2\pi)^3} \sum_{s = 1}^2
\lr{
a_\Bp^{s \dagger} a_\Bp^s

b_\Bp^{s \dagger}
b_\Bp^s
},
\end{equation}
This charge operator characterizes the $$a, b$$ operators. $$a$$ particles have charge $$+1$$, and $$b$$ particles have charge $$-1$$, or vice-versa depending on convention. We call $$a$$ the operator for the electron, and $$b$$ the operator for the positron.
• CPT (Charge-Parity-TimeReversal) symmetries were also mentioned, but not covered in class. We were pointed to , ,  to start studying that topic.

# References

 C. Doran and A.N. Lasenby. Geometric algebra for physicists. Cambridge University Press New York, Cambridge, UK, 1st edition, 2003.

 Dr. Michael Luke. Quantum Field Theory., 2011. URL https://www.physics.utoronto.ca/ luke/PHY2403F/References_files/lecturenotes.pdf. [Online; accessed 05-Dec-2018].

 Michael E Peskin and Daniel V Schroeder. An introduction to Quantum Field Theory. Westview, 1995.

 Dr. David Tong. Quantum Field Theory. URL http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/tong/qft.html.

## PHY2403H Quantum Field Theory. Lecture 9: Unbroken and spontaneously broken symmetries, Higgs Lagrangian, scale invariance, Lorentz invariance, angular momentum quantization. Taught by Prof. Erich Poppitz

[Click here for a PDF of this post with nicer formatting (and a Mathematica listing that I didn’t include in this blog post’s latex export)]

### DISCLAIMER: Very rough notes from class, with some additional side notes.

These are notes for the UofT course PHY2403H, Quantum Field Theory I, taught by Prof. Erich Poppitz fall 2018.

## Last time

We followed a sequence of operations

1. Noether’s theorem
2. $$\rightarrow$$ conserved currents
3. $$\rightarrow$$ charges (classical)
4. $$\rightarrow$$ “correspondence principle”
5. $$\rightarrow \hatQ$$
• Hermitian operators
• “generators of symmetry”
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:20}
\hatU(\alpha) = e^{i \alpha \hatQ}
\end{equation}
We found
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:40}
\hatU(\alpha) \phihat \hatU^\dagger(\alpha) = \phihat + i \alpha \antisymmetric{\hatQ}{\phihat} + \cdots
\end{equation}

### Example: internal symmetries:

(non-spacetime), such as $$O(N)$$ or $$U(1)$$.

In QFT internal symmetries can have different “\underline{modes of realization}”.

[I]

1. “Wigner mode”. These are also called “unbroken symmetries”.
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:60}
\hatQ \ket{0} = 0
\end{equation}
i.e. $$\hatU(\alpha) \ket{0} = 0$$.
Ground state invariant. Formally $$:\hatQ:$$ annihilates $$\ket{0}$$.
$$\antisymmetric{\hatQ}{\hatH} = 0$$ implies that all eigenstates are eigenstates of $$\hatQ$$ in $$U(1)$$. Example from HW 1
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:80}
\hatQ = \text{“charge” under $$U(1)$$}.
\end{equation}
All states have definite charge, just live in QU.
2. “Nambu-Goldstone mode” (Landau-ginsburg). This is also called a “spontaneously broken symmetry”\footnote{
First encounter example (HWII, $$SU(2) \times SU(2) \rightarrow SU(2)$$). Here a $$U(1)$$ spontaneous broken symmetry.}.
$$H$$ or $$L$$ is invariant under symmetry, but ground state is not.

Example:
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:100}
\LL = \partial_\mu \phi^\conj \partial^\mu \phi – V(\Abs{\phi}),
\end{equation}
where
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:120}
V(\Abs{\phi}) = m^2 \phi^\conj \phi + \frac{\lambda}{4} \lr{ \phi^\conj \phi }^2.
\end{equation}
When $$m^2 > 0$$ we have a Wigner mode, but when $$m^2 < 0$$ we have an issue: $$\phi = 0$$ is not a minimum of potential.
When $$m^2 < 0$$ we write
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:140}
\begin{aligned}
V(\phi)
&= – m^2 \phi^\conj \phi + \frac{\lambda}{4} \lr{ \phi^\conj \phi}^2 \\
&= \frac{\lambda}{4} \lr{
\lr{ \phi^\conj \phi}^2 – \frac{4}{\lambda} m^2 } \\
&= \frac{\lambda}{4} \lr{
\phi^\conj \phi – \frac{2}{\lambda} m^2 }^2 – \frac{4 m^4}{\lambda^2},
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
or simply
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:780}
V(\phi)
=
\frac{\lambda}{4} \lr{ \phi^\conj \phi – v^2 }^2 + \text{const}.
\end{equation}
The potential (called the Mexican hat potential) is illustrated in fig. 1 for non-zero $$v$$, and in
fig. 2 for $$v = 0$$.
We choose to expand around some point on the minimum ring (it doesn’t matter which one).
When there is no potential, we call the field massless (i.e. if we are in the minimum ring).
We expand as
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:160}
\phi(x) = v \lr{ 1 + \frac{\rho(x)}{v} } e^{i \alpha(x)/v },
\end{equation}
so
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:180}
\begin{aligned}
\frac{\lambda}{4}
\lr{\phi^\conj \phi – v^2}^2
&=
\lr{
v^2 \lr{ 1 + \frac{\rho(x)}{v} }^2
– v^2
}^2 \\
&=
\frac{\lambda}{4}
v^4 \lr{ \lr{ 1 + \frac{\rho(x)}{v} }^2 – 1 } \\
&=
\frac{\lambda}{4}
v^4
\lr{
\frac{2 \rho}{v} + \frac{\rho^2}{v^2}
}^2.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:200}
\partial_\mu \phi =
\lr{
v \lr{ 1 + \frac{\rho(x)}{v} } \frac{i}{v} \partial_\mu \alpha
+ \partial_\mu \rho
} e^{i \alpha}
\end{equation}

so
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:220}
\begin{aligned}
\LL
&= \Abs{\partial \phi^\conj}^2 – \frac{\lambda}{4} \lr{ \Abs{\phi^\conj}^2 – v^2 }^2 \\
&=
\partial_\mu \rho \partial^\mu \rho + \partial_\mu \alpha \partial^\mu \alpha \lr{ 1 + \frac{\rho}{v} }

\frac{\lambda v^4}{4} \frac{ 4\rho^2}{v^2} + O(\rho^3) \\
&=
\partial_\mu \rho \partial^\mu \rho
– \lambda v^2\rho^2
+
\partial_\mu \alpha \partial^\mu \alpha \lr{ 1 + \frac{\rho}{v} }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
We have two fields, $$\rho$$ : a massive scalar field, the “Higgs”, and a massless field $$\alpha$$ (the Goldstone Boson).

$$U(1)$$ symmetry acts on $$\phi(x) \rightarrow e^{i \omega } \phi(x)$$ i.t.o $$\alpha(x) \rightarrow \alpha(x) + v \omega$$.
$$U(1)$$ global symmetry (broken) acts on the Goldstone field $$\alpha(x)$$ by a constant shift. ($$U(1)$$ is still a symmetry of the Lagrangian.)

The current of the $$U(1)$$ symmetry is:
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:240}
j_\mu = \partial_\mu \alpha \lr{ 1 + \text{higher dimensional $$\rho$$ terms} }.
\end{equation}

When we quantize
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:260}
\alpha(x) =
\int \frac{d^3p}{(2\pi)^3 \sqrt{ 2 \omega_p }} e^{i \omega_p t – i \Bp \cdot \Bx} \hat{a}_\Bp^\dagger +
\int \frac{d^3p}{(2\pi)^3 \sqrt{ 2 \omega_p }} e^{-i \omega_p t + i \Bp \cdot \Bx} \hat{a}_\Bp
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:280}
j^\mu(x) = \partial^\mu \alpha(x) =
\int \frac{d^3p}{(2\pi)^3 \sqrt{ 2 \omega_p }} \lr{ i \omega_\Bp – i \Bp } e^{i \omega_p t – i \Bp \cdot \Bx} \hat{a}_\Bp^\dagger +
\int \frac{d^3p}{(2\pi)^3 \sqrt{ 2 \omega_p }} \lr{ -i \omega_\Bp + i \Bp } e^{-i \omega_p t + i \Bp \cdot \Bx} \hat{a}_\Bp.
\end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:300}
j^\mu(x) \ket{0} \ne 0,
\end{equation}
instead it creates a single particle state.

## Examples of symmetries

In particle physics, examples of Wigner vs Nambu-Goldstone, ignoring gravity the only exact internal symmetry in the standard module is
$$(B\# – L\#)$$, believed to be a $$U(1)$$ symmetry in Wigner mode.

Here $$B\#$$ is the Baryon number, and $$L\#$$ is the Lepton number. Examples:

• $$B(p) = 1$$, proton.
• $$B(q) = 1/3$$, quark
• $$B(e) = 1$$, electron
• $$B(n) = 1$$, neutron.
• $$L(p) = 1$$, proton.
• $$L(q) = 0$$, quark.
• $$L(e) = 0$$, electron.

The major use of global internal symmetries in the standard model is as “approximate” ones. They become symmetries when one neglects some effect( “terms in $$\LL$$”).
There are other approximate symmetries (use of group theory to find the Balmer series).

### Example from HW2:

QCD in limit
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:320}
m_u = m_d = 0.
\end{equation}
$$m_u m_d \ll m_p$$ (the products of the up-quark mass and the down-quark mass are much less than a composite one (name?)).
$$SU(2)_L \times SU(2)_R \rightarrow SU(2)_V$$

### EWSB (Electro-Weak-Symmetry-Breaking) sector

When the couplings $$g_2, g_1 = 0$$. ($$g_2 \in SU(2), g_1 \in U(1)$$).

## Scale invariance

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:340}
\begin{aligned}
x &\rightarrow e^{\lambda} x \\
\phi &\rightarrow e^{-\lambda} \phi \\
A_\mu &\rightarrow e^{-\lambda} A_\mu
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
Any unitary theory which is scale invariant is also \underline{conformal} invariant. Conformal invariance means that angles are preserved.
The point here is that there is more than scale invariance.

We have classical internal global continuous symmetries.
These can be either

1. “unbroken” (Wigner mode)
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:360}
\hatQ\ket{0} = 0.
\end{equation}
2. “spontaneously broken”
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:380}
j^\mu(x) \ket{0} \ne 0
\end{equation}
(creates Goldstone modes).
3. “anomalous”. Classical symmetries are not a symmetry of QFT.
Examples:

• Scale symmetry (to be studied in QFT II), although this is not truly internal.
• In QCD again when $$\omega_\Bq = 0$$, a $$U(1$$ symmetry (chiral symmetry) becomes exact, and cannot be preserved in QFT.
• In the standard model (E.W sector), the Baryon number and Lepton numbers are not symmetries, but their difference $$B\# – L\#$$ is a symmetry.

## Lorentz invariance.

We’d like to study the action of Lorentz symmetries on quantum states. We are going to “go by the book”, finding symmetries, currents, quantize, find generators, and so forth.

Under a Lorentz transformation
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:400}
x^\mu \rightarrow {x’}^\mu = {\Lambda^\mu}_\nu x^\nu,
\end{equation}
We are going to consider infinitesimal Lorentz transformations
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:420}
{\Lambda^\mu}_\nu \approx
{\delta^\mu}_\nu + {\omega^\mu}_\nu
,
\end{equation}
where $${\omega^\mu}_\nu$$ is small.
A Lorentz transformation $$\Lambda$$ must satisfy $$\Lambda^\T G \Lambda = G$$, or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:800}
g_{\mu\nu} = {{\Lambda}^\alpha}_\mu g_{\alpha \beta} {{\Lambda}^\beta}_\nu,
\end{equation}
into which we insert the infinitesimal transformation representation
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:820}
\begin{aligned}
0
&=
– g_{\mu\nu} +
\lr{ {\delta^\alpha}_\mu + {\omega^\alpha}_\mu }
g_{\alpha \beta}
\lr{ {\delta^\beta}_\nu + {\omega^\beta}_\nu } \\
&=
– g_{\mu\nu} +
\lr{
g_{\mu \beta}
+
\omega_{\beta\mu}
}
\lr{ {\delta^\beta}_\nu + {\omega^\beta}_\nu } \\
&=
– g_{\mu\nu} +
g_{\mu \nu}
+
\omega_{\nu\mu}
+
\omega_{\mu\nu}
+
\omega_{\beta\mu}
{\omega^\beta}_\nu.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
The quadratic term can be ignored, leaving just
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:840}
0 =
\omega_{\nu\mu}
+
\omega_{\mu\nu},
\end{equation}
or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:860}
\omega_{\nu\mu} = – \omega_{\mu\nu}.
\end{equation}
Note that $$\omega$$ is a completely antisymmetric tensor, and like $$F_{\mu\nu}$$ this has only 6 elements.
This means that the
infinitesimal transformation of the coordinates is
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:440}
x^\mu \rightarrow {x’}^\mu \approx x^\mu + \omega^{\mu\nu} x_\nu,
\end{equation}
the field transforms as
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:460}
\phi(x) \rightarrow \phi'(x’) = \phi(x)
\end{equation}
or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:760}
\phi'(x^\mu + \omega^{\mu\nu} x_\nu) =
\phi'(x) + \omega^{\mu\nu} x_\nu \partial_\mu\phi(x) = \phi(x),
\end{equation}
so
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:480}
\delta \phi = \phi'(x) – \phi(x) =
-\omega^{\mu\nu} x_\nu \partial_\mu \phi.
\end{equation}

Since $$\LL$$ is a scalar
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:500}
\begin{aligned}
\delta \LL
&=
-\omega^{\mu\nu} x_\nu \partial_\mu \LL \\
&=

\partial_\mu \lr{
\omega^{\mu\nu} x_\nu \LL
}
+
(\partial_\mu x_\nu) \omega^{\mu\nu} \LL \\
&=
\partial_\mu \lr{

\omega^{\mu\nu} x_\nu \LL
},
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
since $$\partial_\nu x_\mu = g_{\nu\mu}$$ is symmetric, and $$\omega$$ is antisymmetric.
Our current is
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:520}
J^\mu_\omega
=

\omega^{\mu\nu} x_\mu \LL
.
\end{equation}
Our Noether current is
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:540}
\begin{aligned}
j^\nu_{\omega^{\mu\rho}}
&= \PD{\phi_{,\nu}}{\LL} \delta \phi – J^\mu_\omega \\
&=
\partial^\nu \phi\lr{ – \omega^{\mu\rho} x_\rho \partial_\mu \phi } + \omega^{\nu \rho} x_\rho \LL \\
&=
\omega^{\mu\rho}
\lr{
\partial^\nu \phi\lr{ – x_\rho \partial_\mu \phi } + {\delta^{\nu}}_\mu x_\rho \LL
} \\
&=
\omega^{\mu\rho} x_\rho
\lr{
-\partial^\nu \phi \partial_\mu \phi + {\delta^{\nu}}_\mu \LL
}
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
We identify
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:560}

{T^\nu}_\mu =
-\partial^\nu \phi \partial_\mu \phi + {\delta^{\nu}}_\mu \LL,
\end{equation}
so the current is
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:580}
\begin{aligned}
j^\nu_{\omega_{\mu\rho}}
&=
-\omega^{\mu\rho} x_\rho
{T^\nu}_\mu \\
&=
-\omega_{\mu\rho} x^\rho
T^{\nu\mu}
.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
Define
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:600}
j^{\nu\mu\rho} = \inv{2} \lr{ x^\rho T^{\nu\mu} – x^{\mu} T^{\nu\rho} },
\end{equation}
which retains the antisymmetry in $$\mu \rho$$ yet still drops the parameter $$\omega^{\mu\rho}$$.
To check that this makes sense, we can contract
$$j^{\nu\mu\rho}$$ with $$\omega_{\rho\mu}$$
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:880}
\begin{aligned}
j^{\nu\mu\rho} \omega_{\rho\mu}
&= -\inv{2} \lr{ x^\rho T^{\nu\mu} – x^{\mu} T^{\nu\rho} }
\omega_{\mu\rho} \\
&=
-\inv{2} x^\rho T^{\nu\mu}
\omega_{\mu\rho}
– \inv{2} x^{\mu} T^{\nu\rho}
\omega_{\rho\mu} \\
&=
-\inv{2} x^\rho T^{\nu\mu}
\omega_{\mu\rho}
– \inv{2} x^{\rho} T^{\nu\mu}
\omega_{\mu\rho} \\
&=
– x^{\rho} T^{\nu\mu}
\omega_{\mu\rho},
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
which matches \ref{eqn:qftLecture9:580} as desired.

### Example. Rotations $$\mu\rho = ij$$

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:620}
\begin{aligned}
J^{0 i j} \epsilon_{ijk}
&=
\inv{2} \lr{ x^i T^{0j} – x^{j} T^{0i} } \epsilon_{ijk} \\
&=
x^i T^{0j} \epsilon_{ijk}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
Observe that this has the structure of $$(\Bx \cross \Bp)_k$$, where $$\Bp$$ is the momentum density of the field.
Let
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:640}
L_k \equiv Q_k = \int d^3 x J^{0ij} \epsilon_{ijk}.
\end{equation}
We can now quantize and build a generator
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:660}
\begin{aligned}
\hatU(\Balpha)
&= e^{i \Balpha \cdot \hat{\BL}} \\
&= \exp\lr{i \alpha_k
\int d^3 x x^i \hat{T}^{0j} \epsilon_{ijk}
}
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
From \ref{eqn:qftLecture9:560} we can quantize with $$T^{0j} = \partial^0 \phi \partial^j \phi \rightarrow \hat{\pi} \lr{\spacegrad \phihat}_j$$, or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:900}
\begin{aligned}
\hatU(\Balpha)
&=
\exp\lr{i \alpha_k
\int d^3 x x^i \hat{\pi} (\spacegrad \phihat)_j \epsilon_{ijk}
} \\
&=
\exp\lr{i \Balpha \cdot
\int d^3 x \hat{\pi} \spacegrad \phihat \cross \Bx
}
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:680}
\begin{aligned}
\phihat(\By) \rightarrow \hatU(\alpha) \phihat(\By) \hatU^\dagger(\alpha)
&\approx
\phihat(\By) +
i \Balpha \cdot
\antisymmetric{
\int d^3 x \hat{\pi}(\Bx) \spacegrad \phihat(\Bx) \cross \Bx
}
{
\phihat(\By)
} \\
&=
\phihat(\By) +
i \Balpha \cdot
\int d^3 x
(-i) \delta^3(\Bx – \By)
&=
\phihat(\By) +
\Balpha \cdot \lr{ \spacegrad \phihat(\By ) \cross \By}
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
Explicitly, in coordinates, this is
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:700}
\begin{aligned}
\phihat(\By)
&\rightarrow
\phihat(\By) +
\alpha^i
\lr{
\partial^j \phihat(\By) y^k \epsilon_{jki}
} \\
&=
\phihat(\By) –
\epsilon_{ikj} \alpha^i y^k \partial^j \phihat \\
&=
\phihat( y^j – \epsilon^{ikj} \alpha^i y^k ).
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
This is a rotation. To illustrate, pick $$\Balpha = (0, 0, \alpha)$$, so $$y^j \rightarrow y^j – \epsilon^{ikj} \alpha y^k \delta_{i3} = y^j – \epsilon^{3kj} \alpha y^k$$, or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:n}
\begin{aligned}
y^1 &\rightarrow y^1 – \epsilon^{3k1} \alpha y^k = y^1 + \alpha y^2 \\
y^2 &\rightarrow y^2 – \epsilon^{3k2} \alpha y^k = y^2 – \alpha y^1 \\
y^3 &\rightarrow y^3 – \epsilon^{3k3} \alpha y^k = y^3,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}
or in matrix form
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qftLecture9:720}
\begin{bmatrix}
y^1 \\
y^2 \\
y^3 \\
\end{bmatrix}
\rightarrow
\begin{bmatrix}
1 & \alpha & 0 \\
-\alpha & 1 & 0 \\
0 & 0 & 1
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
y^1 \\
y^2 \\
y^3 \\
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{equation}

## Motivation.

The notation I prefer for relativistic geometric algebra uses Hestenes’ space time algebra (STA) , where the basis is a four dimensional space $$\setlr{ \gamma_\mu }$$, subject to Dirac matrix like relations $$\gamma_\mu \cdot \gamma_\nu = \eta_{\mu \nu}$$.

In this formalism a four vector is just the sum of the products of coordinates and basis vectors, for example, using summation convention

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:160}
x = x^\mu \gamma_\mu.
\end{equation}

The invariant for a four-vector in STA is just the square of that vector

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:180}
\begin{aligned}
x^2
&= (x^\mu \gamma_\mu) \cdot (x^\nu \gamma_\nu) \\
&= \sum_\mu (x^\mu)^2 (\gamma_\mu)^2 \\
&= (x^0)^2 – \sum_{k = 1}^3 (x^k)^2 \\
&= (ct)^2 – \Bx^2.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Recall that a four-vector is time-like if this squared-length is positive, spacelike if negative, and light-like when zero.

Time-like projections are possible by dotting with the “lab-frame” time like basis vector $$\gamma_0$$

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:200}
ct = x \cdot \gamma_0 = x^0,
\end{equation}

and space-like projections are wedges with the same

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:220}
\Bx = x \cdot \gamma_0 = x^k \sigma_k,
\end{equation}

where sums over Latin indexes $$k \in \setlr{1,2,3}$$ are implied, and where the elements $$\sigma_k$$

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:80}
\sigma_k = \gamma_k \gamma_0.
\end{equation}

which are bivectors in STA, can be viewed as an Euclidean vector basis $$\setlr{ \sigma_k }$$.

Rotations in STA involve exponentials of space like bivectors $$\theta = a_{ij} \gamma_i \wedge \gamma_j$$

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:240}
x’ = e^{ \theta/2 } x e^{ -\theta/2 }.
\end{equation}

Boosts, on the other hand, have exactly the same form, but the exponentials are with respect to space-time bivectors arguments, such as $$\theta = a \wedge \gamma_0$$, where $$a$$ is any four-vector.

Observe that both boosts and rotations necessarily conserve the space-time length of a four vector (or any multivector with a scalar square).

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:260}
\begin{aligned}
\lr{x’}^2
&=
\lr{ e^{ \theta/2 } x e^{ -\theta/2 } } \lr{ e^{ \theta/2 } x e^{ -\theta/2 } } \\
&=
e^{ \theta/2 } x \lr{ e^{ -\theta/2 } e^{ \theta/2 } } x e^{ -\theta/2 } \\
&=
e^{ \theta/2 } x^2 e^{ -\theta/2 } \\
&=
x^2 e^{ \theta/2 } e^{ -\theta/2 } \\
&=
x^2.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

## Paravectors.

Paravectors, as used by Baylis , represent four-vectors using a Euclidean multivector basis $$\setlr{ \Be_\mu }$$, where $$\Be_0 = 1$$. The conversion between STA and paravector notation requires only multiplication with the timelike basis vector for the lab frame $$\gamma_0$$

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:40}
\begin{aligned}
X
&= x \gamma_0 \\
&= \lr{ x^0 \gamma_0 + x^k \gamma_k } \gamma_0 \\
&= x^0 + x^k \gamma_k \gamma_0 \\
&= x^0 + \Bx \\
&= c t + \Bx,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

We need a different structure for the invariant length in paravector form. That invariant length is
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:280}
\begin{aligned}
x^2
&=
\lr{ \lr{ ct + \Bx } \gamma_0 }
\lr{ \lr{ ct + \Bx } \gamma_0 } \\
&=
\lr{ \lr{ ct + \Bx } \gamma_0 }
\lr{ \gamma_0 \lr{ ct – \Bx } } \\
&=
\lr{ ct + \Bx }
\lr{ ct – \Bx }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Baylis introduces an involution operator $$\overline{{M}}$$ which toggles the sign of any vector or bivector grades of a multivector. For example, if $$M = a + \Ba + I \Bb + I c$$, where $$a,c \in \mathbb{R}$$ and $$\Ba, \Bb \in \mathbb{R}^3$$ is a multivector with all grades $$0,1,2,3$$, then the involution of $$M$$ is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:300}
\overline{{M}} = a – \Ba – I \Bb + I c.
\end{equation}

Utilizing this operator, the invariant length for a paravector $$X$$ is $$X \overline{{X}}$$.

Let’s consider how boosts and rotations can be expressed in the paravector form. The half angle operator for a boost along the spacelike $$\Bv = v \vcap$$ direction has the form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:120}
L = e^{ -\vcap \phi/2 },
\end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:140}
\begin{aligned}
X’
&=
c t’ + \Bx’ \\
&=
x’ \gamma_0 \\
&=
L x L^\dagger \\
&=
e^{ -\vcap \phi/2 } x^\mu \gamma_\mu
e^{ \vcap \phi/2 } \gamma_0 \\
&=
e^{ -\vcap \phi/2 } x^\mu \gamma_\mu \gamma_0
e^{ -\vcap \phi/2 } \\
&=
e^{ -\vcap \phi/2 } \lr{ x^0 + \Bx } e^{ -\vcap \phi/2 } \\
&=
L X L.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Because the involution operator toggles the sign of vector grades, it is easy to see that the required invariance is maintained

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:320}
\begin{aligned}
X’ \overline{{X’}}
&=
L X L
\overline{{ L X L }} \\
&=
L X L
\overline{{ L }} \overline{{ X }} \overline{{ L }} \\
&=
L X \overline{{ X }} \overline{{ L }} \\
&=
X \overline{{ X }} L \overline{{ L }} \\
&=
X \overline{{ X }}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Let’s explicitly expand the transformation of \ref{eqn:boostToParavector:140}, so we can relate the rapidity angle $$\phi$$ to the magnitude of the velocity. This is most easily done by splitting the spacelike component $$\Bx$$ of the four vector into its projective and rejective components

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:340}
\begin{aligned}
\Bx
&= \vcap \vcap \Bx \\
&= \vcap \lr{ \vcap \cdot \Bx + \vcap \wedge \Bx } \\
&= \vcap \lr{ \vcap \cdot \Bx } + \vcap \lr{ \vcap \wedge \Bx } \\
&= \Bx_\parallel + \Bx_\perp.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The exponential

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:360}
e^{-\vcap \phi/2}
=
\cosh\lr{ \phi/2 }
– \vcap \sinh\lr{ \phi/2 },
\end{equation}

commutes with any scalar grades and with $$\Bx_\parallel$$, but anticommutes with $$\Bx_\perp$$, so

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:380}
\begin{aligned}
X’
&=
\lr{ c t + \Bx_\parallel } e^{ -\vcap \phi/2 } e^{ -\vcap \phi/2 }
+
\Bx_\perp e^{ \vcap \phi/2 } e^{ -\vcap \phi/2 } \\
&=
\lr{ c t + \Bx_\parallel } e^{ -\vcap \phi }
+
\Bx_\perp \\
&=
\lr{ c t + \vcap \lr{ \vcap \cdot \Bx } } \lr{ \cosh \phi – \vcap \sinh \phi }
+
\Bx_\perp \\
&=
\Bx_\perp
+
\lr{ c t \cosh\phi – \lr{ \vcap \cdot \Bx} \sinh \phi }
+
\vcap \lr{ \lr{ \vcap \cdot \Bx } \cosh\phi – c t \sinh \phi } \\
&=
\Bx_\perp
+
\cosh\phi \lr{ c t – \lr{ \vcap \cdot \Bx} \tanh \phi }
+
\vcap \cosh\phi \lr{ \vcap \cdot \Bx – c t \tanh \phi }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Employing the argument from ,
we want $$\phi$$ defined so that this has structure of a Galilean transformation in the limit where $$\phi \rightarrow 0$$. This means we equate

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:400}
\tanh \phi = \frac{v}{c},
\end{equation}

so that for small $$\phi$$

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:420}
\Bx’ = \Bx – \Bv t.
\end{equation}

We can solving for $$\sinh^2 \phi$$ and $$\cosh^2 \phi$$ in terms of $$v/c$$ using

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:440}
\tanh^2 \phi
= \frac{v^2}{c^2}
=
\frac{ \sinh^2 \phi }{1 + \sinh^2 \phi}
=
\frac{ \cosh^2 \phi – 1 }{\cosh^2 \phi}.
\end{equation}

which after picking the positive root required for Galilean equivalence gives
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:460}
\begin{aligned}
\cosh \phi &= \frac{1}{\sqrt{1 – (\Bv/c)^2}} \equiv \gamma \\
\sinh \phi &= \frac{v/c}{\sqrt{1 – (\Bv/c)^2}} = \gamma v/c.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The Lorentz boost, written out in full is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:boostToParavector:480}
ct’ + \Bx’
=
\Bx_\perp
+
\gamma \lr{ c t – \frac{\Bv}{c} \cdot \Bx }
+
\gamma \lr{ \vcap \lr{ \vcap \cdot \Bx } – \Bv t }
.
\end{equation}

Authors like Chappelle, et al., that also use paravectors , specify the form of the Lorentz transformation for the electromagnetic field, but for that transformation reversion is used instead of involution.
I plan to explore that in a later post, starting from the STA formalism that I already understand, and see if I can make sense
of the underlying rationale.

# References

 William Baylis. Electrodynamics: a modern geometric approach, volume 17. Springer Science \& Business Media, 2004.

 C. Doran and A.N. Lasenby. Geometric algebra for physicists. Cambridge University Press New York, Cambridge, UK, 1st edition, 2003.

 L. Landau and E. Lifshitz. The Classical theory of fields. Addison-Wesley, 1951.

 James M Chappell, Samuel P Drake, Cameron L Seidel, Lachlan J Gunn, and Derek Abbott. Geometric algebra for electrical and electronic engineers. Proceedings of the IEEE, 102 0(9), 2014.

## 2D SHO xy perturbation

### Q:  pr. 5.4

Given a 2D SHO with Hamiltonian

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:20}
H_0 = \inv{2m} \lr{ p_x^2 + p_y^2 } + \frac{m \omega^2}{2} \lr{ x^2 + y^2 },
\end{equation}

• (a)
What are the energies and degeneracies of the three lowest states?

• (b)
With perturbation

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:40}
V = m \omega^2 x y,
\end{equation}

calculate the first order energy perturbations and the zeroth order perturbed states.

• (c)
Solve the $$H_0 + \delta V$$ problem exactly, and compare.

### A: part (a)

Recall that we have

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:60}
H \ket{n_1, n_2} =
\Hbar\omega
\lr{
n_1 + n_2 + 1
}
\ket{n_1, n_2},
\end{equation}

So the three lowest energy states are $$\ket{0,0}, \ket{1,0}, \ket{0,1}$$ with energies $$\Hbar \omega, 2 \Hbar \omega, 2 \Hbar \omega$$ respectively (with a two fold degeneracy for the second two energy eigenkets).

### A: part (b)

Consider the action of $$x y$$ on the $$\beta = \setlr{ \ket{0,0}, \ket{1,0}, \ket{0,1} }$$ subspace. Those are

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:200}
\begin{aligned}
x y \ket{0,0}
&=
\frac{x_0^2}{2} \lr{ a + a^\dagger } \lr{ b + b^\dagger } \ket{0,0} \\
&=
\frac{x_0^2}{2} \lr{ b + b^\dagger } \ket{1,0} \\
&=
\frac{x_0^2}{2} \ket{1,1}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:220}
\begin{aligned}
x y \ket{1, 0}
&=
\frac{x_0^2}{2} \lr{ a + a^\dagger } \lr{ b + b^\dagger } \ket{1,0} \\
&=
\frac{x_0^2}{2} \lr{ a + a^\dagger } \ket{1,1} \\
&=
\frac{x_0^2}{2} \lr{ \ket{0,1} + \sqrt{2} \ket{2,1} } .
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:240}
\begin{aligned}
x y \ket{0, 1}
&=
\frac{x_0^2}{2} \lr{ a + a^\dagger } \lr{ b + b^\dagger } \ket{0,1} \\
&=
\frac{x_0^2}{2} \lr{ b + b^\dagger } \ket{1,1} \\
&=
\frac{x_0^2}{2} \lr{ \ket{1,0} + \sqrt{2} \ket{1,2} }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The matrix representation of $$m \omega^2 x y$$ with respect to the subspace spanned by basis $$\beta$$ above is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:260}
x y
\sim
\inv{2} \Hbar \omega
\begin{bmatrix}
0 & 0 & 0 \\
0 & 0 & 1 \\
0 & 1 & 0 \\
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{equation}

This diagonalizes with

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:300}
U
=
\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 \\
0 & \tilde{U}
\end{bmatrix}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:320}
\tilde{U}
=
\inv{\sqrt{2}}
\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 1 \\
1 & -1 \\
\end{bmatrix}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:340}
D =
\inv{2} \Hbar \omega
\begin{bmatrix}
0 & 0 & 0 \\
0 & 1 & 0 \\
0 & 0 & -1 \\
\end{bmatrix}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:360}
x y = U D U^\dagger = U D U.
\end{equation}

The unperturbed Hamiltonian in the original basis is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:380}
H_0
=
\Hbar \omega
\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 \\
0 & 2 I
\end{bmatrix},
\end{equation}

So the transformation to the diagonal $$x y$$ basis leaves the initial Hamiltonian unaltered

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:400}
\begin{aligned}
H_0′
&= U^\dagger H_0 U \\
&=
\Hbar \omega
\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 \\
0 & \tilde{U} 2 I \tilde{U}
\end{bmatrix} \\
&=
\Hbar \omega
\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 \\
0 & 2 I
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Now we can compute the first order energy shifts almost by inspection. Writing the new basis as $$\beta’ = \setlr{ \ket{0}, \ket{1}, \ket{2} }$$ those energy shifts are just the diagonal elements from the $$x y$$ operators matrix representation

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:420}
\begin{aligned}
E^{{(1)}}_0 &= \bra{0} V \ket{0} = 0 \\
E^{{(1)}}_1 &= \bra{1} V \ket{1} = \inv{2} \Hbar \omega \\
E^{{(1)}}_2 &= \bra{2} V \ket{2} = -\inv{2} \Hbar \omega.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The new energies are

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:440}
\begin{aligned}
E_0 &\rightarrow \Hbar \omega \\
E_1 &\rightarrow \Hbar \omega \lr{ 2 + \delta/2 } \\
E_2 &\rightarrow \Hbar \omega \lr{ 2 – \delta/2 }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

### A: part (c)

For the exact solution, it’s possible to rotate the coordinate system in a way that kills the explicit $$x y$$ term of the perturbation. That we could do this for $$x, y$$ operators wasn’t obvious to me, but after doing so (and rotating the momentum operators the same way) the new operators still have the required commutators. Let

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:80}
\begin{aligned}
\begin{bmatrix}
u \\
v
\end{bmatrix}
&=
\begin{bmatrix}
\cos\theta & \sin\theta \\
-\sin\theta & \cos\theta
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
x \\
y
\end{bmatrix} \\
&=
\begin{bmatrix}
x \cos\theta + y \sin\theta \\
-x \sin\theta + y \cos\theta
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Similarly, for the momentum operators, let
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:100}
\begin{aligned}
\begin{bmatrix}
p_u \\
p_v
\end{bmatrix}
&=
\begin{bmatrix}
\cos\theta & \sin\theta \\
-\sin\theta & \cos\theta
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
p_x \\
p_y
\end{bmatrix} \\
&=
\begin{bmatrix}
p_x \cos\theta + p_y \sin\theta \\
-p_x \sin\theta + p_y \cos\theta
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

For the commutators of the new operators we have

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:120}
\begin{aligned}
\antisymmetric{u}{p_u}
&=
\antisymmetric{x \cos\theta + y \sin\theta}{p_x \cos\theta + p_y \sin\theta} \\
&=
\antisymmetric{x}{p_x} \cos^2\theta + \antisymmetric{y}{p_y} \sin^2\theta \\
&=
i \Hbar \lr{ \cos^2\theta + \sin^2\theta } \\
&=
i\Hbar.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:140}
\begin{aligned}
\antisymmetric{v}{p_v}
&=
\antisymmetric{-x \sin\theta + y \cos\theta}{-p_x \sin\theta + p_y \cos\theta} \\
&=
\antisymmetric{x}{p_x} \sin^2\theta + \antisymmetric{y}{p_y} \cos^2\theta \\
&=
i \Hbar.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:160}
\begin{aligned}
\antisymmetric{u}{p_v}
&=
\antisymmetric{x \cos\theta + y \sin\theta}{-p_x \sin\theta + p_y \cos\theta} \\
&= \cos\theta \sin\theta \lr{ -\antisymmetric{x}{p_x} + \antisymmetric{y}{p_p} } \\
&=
0.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:180}
\begin{aligned}
\antisymmetric{v}{p_u}
&=
\antisymmetric{-x \sin\theta + y \cos\theta}{p_x \cos\theta + p_y \sin\theta} \\
&= \cos\theta \sin\theta \lr{ -\antisymmetric{x}{p_x} + \antisymmetric{y}{p_p} } \\
&=
0.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

We see that the new operators are canonical conjugate as required. For this problem, we just want a 45 degree rotation, with

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:460}
\begin{aligned}
x &= \inv{\sqrt{2}} \lr{ u + v } \\
y &= \inv{\sqrt{2}} \lr{ u – v }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

We have
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:480}
\begin{aligned}
x^2 + y^2
&=
\inv{2} \lr{ (u+v)^2 + (u-v)^2 } \\
&=
\inv{2} \lr{ 2 u^2 + 2 v^2 + 2 u v – 2 u v } \\
&=
u^2 + v^2,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:500}
\begin{aligned}
p_x^2 + p_y^2
&=
\inv{2} \lr{ (p_u+p_v)^2 + (p_u-p_v)^2 } \\
&=
\inv{2} \lr{ 2 p_u^2 + 2 p_v^2 + 2 p_u p_v – 2 p_u p_v } \\
&=
p_u^2 + p_v^2,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

and
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:520}
\begin{aligned}
x y
&=
\inv{2} \lr{ (u+v)(u-v) } \\
&=
\inv{2} \lr{ u^2 – v^2 }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The perturbed Hamiltonian is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:540}
\begin{aligned}
H_0 + \delta V
&=
\inv{2m} \lr{ p_u^2 + p_v^2 }
+ \inv{2} m \omega^2 \lr{ u^2 + v^2 + \delta u^2 – \delta v^2 } \\
&=
\inv{2m} \lr{ p_u^2 + p_v^2 }
+ \inv{2} m \omega^2 \lr{ u^2(1 + \delta) + v^2 (1 – \delta) }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

In this coordinate system, the corresponding eigensystem is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:560}
H \ket{n_1, n_2}
= \Hbar \omega \lr{ 1 + n_1 \sqrt{1 + \delta} + n_2 \sqrt{ 1 – \delta } } \ket{n_1, n_2}.
\end{equation}

For small $$\delta$$

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:580}
n_1 \sqrt{1 + \delta} + n_2 \sqrt{ 1 – \delta }
\approx
n_1 + n_2
+ \inv{2} n_1 \delta
– \inv{2} n_2 \delta,
\end{equation}

so
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:600}
H \ket{n_1, n_2}
\approx \Hbar \omega \lr{ 1 + n_1 + n_2 + \inv{2} n_1 \delta – \inv{2} n_2 \delta
} \ket{n_1, n_2}.
\end{equation}

The lowest order perturbed energy levels are

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:620}
\ket{0,0} \rightarrow \Hbar \omega
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:640}
\ket{1,0} \rightarrow \Hbar \omega \lr{ 2 + \inv{2} \delta }
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:2dHarmonicOscillatorXYPerturbation:660}
\ket{0,1} \rightarrow \Hbar \omega \lr{ 2 – \inv{2} \delta }
\end{equation}

The degeneracy of the $$\ket{0,1}, \ket{1,0}$$ states has been split, and to first order match the zeroth order perturbation result.

# References

 Jun John Sakurai and Jim J Napolitano. Modern quantum mechanics. Pearson Higher Ed, 2014.

## Third update of aggregate notes for phy1520, Graduate Quantum Mechanics.

I’ve posted a third update of my aggregate notes for PHY1520H Graduate Quantum Mechanics, taught by Prof. Arun Paramekanti. In addition to what was noted previously, this contains lecture notes up to lecture 13, my solutions for the third problem set, and some additional worked practice problems.

Most of the content was posted individually in the following locations, but those original documents will not be maintained individually any further.

## PHY1520H Graduate Quantum Mechanics. Lecture 12: Symmetry (cont.). Taught by Prof. Arun Paramekanti

### Disclaimer

Peeter’s lecture notes from class. These may be incoherent and rough.

These are notes for the UofT course PHY1520, Graduate Quantum Mechanics, taught by Prof. Paramekanti, covering chap. 4 content from .

### Parity (review)

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:20}
\hat{\Pi} \hat{x} \hat{\Pi} = – \hat{x}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:40}
\hat{\Pi} \hat{p} \hat{\Pi} = – \hat{p}
\end{equation}

These are polar vectors, in contrast to an axial vector such as $$\BL = \Br \cross \Bp$$.

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:60}
\hat{\Pi}^2 = 1
\end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:80}
\Psi(x) \rightarrow \Psi(-x)
\end{equation}

If $$\antisymmetric{\hat{\Pi}}{\hat{H}} = 0$$ then all the eigenstates are either

• even: $$\hat{\Pi}$$ eigenvalue is $$+ 1$$.
• odd: $$\hat{\Pi}$$ eigenvalue is $$– 1$$.

We are done with discrete symmetry operators for now.

### Translations

Define a (continuous) translation operator

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:100}
\hat{T}_\epsilon \ket{x} = \ket{x + \epsilon}
\end{equation}

The action of this operator is sketched in fig. 1.

This is a unitary operator

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:120}
\hat{T}_{-\epsilon} = \hat{T}_{\epsilon}^\dagger = \hat{T}_{\epsilon}^{-1}
\end{equation}

In a position basis, the action of this operator is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:140}
\bra{x} \hat{T}_{\epsilon} \ket{\psi} = \braket{x-\epsilon}{\psi} = \psi(x – \epsilon)
\end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:160}
\Psi(x – \epsilon) \approx \Psi(x) – \epsilon \PD{x}{\Psi}
\end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:180}
\bra{x} \hat{T}_{\epsilon} \ket{\Psi}
= \braket{x}{\Psi} – \frac{\epsilon}{\Hbar} \bra{ x} i \hat{p} \ket{\Psi}
\end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:200}
\hat{T}_{\epsilon} \approx \lr{ 1 – i \frac{\epsilon}{\Hbar} \hat{p} }
\end{equation}

A non-infinitesimal translation can be composed of many small translations, as sketched in fig. 2.

For $$\epsilon \rightarrow 0, N \rightarrow \infty, N \epsilon = a$$, the total translation operator is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:220}
\begin{aligned}
\hat{T}_{a}
&= \hat{T}_{\epsilon}^N \\
&= \lim_{\epsilon \rightarrow 0, N \rightarrow \infty, N \epsilon = a }
\lr{ 1 – \frac{\epsilon}{\Hbar} \hat{p} }^N \\
&= e^{-i a \hat{p}/\Hbar}
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The momentum $$\hat{p}$$ is called a “Generator” generator of translations. If a Hamiltonian $$H$$ is translationally invariant, then

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:240}
\antisymmetric{\hat{T}_{a}}{H} = 0, \qquad \forall a.
\end{equation}

This means that momentum will be a good quantum number

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:260}
\antisymmetric{\hat{p}}{H} = 0.
\end{equation}

### Rotations

Rotations form a non-Abelian group, since the order of rotations $$\hatR_1 \hatR_2 \ne \hatR_2 \hatR_1$$.

Given a rotation acting on a ket

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:280}
\hatR \ket{\Br} = \ket{R \Br},
\end{equation}

observe that the action of the rotation operator on a wave function is inverted

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:300}
\bra{\Br} \hatR \ket{\Psi}
=
\bra{R^{-1} \Br} \ket{\Psi}
= \Psi(R^{-1} \Br).
\end{equation}

## Example: Z axis normal rotation

Consider an infinitesimal rotation about the z-axis as sketched in fig. 3(a),(b)

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:320}
\begin{aligned}
x’ &= x – \epsilon y \\
y’ &= y + \epsilon y \\
z’ &= z
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The rotated wave function is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:340}
\tilde{\Psi}(x,y,z)
= \Psi( x + \epsilon y, y – \epsilon x, z )
=
\Psi( x, y, z )
+
\epsilon y \underbrace{\PD{x}{\Psi}}_{i \hat{p}_x/\Hbar}

\epsilon x \underbrace{\PD{y}{\Psi}}_{i \hat{p}_y/\Hbar}.
\end{equation}

The state must then transform as

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:360}
\ket{\tilde{\Psi}}
=
\lr{
1
+ i \frac{\epsilon}{\Hbar} \hat{y} \hat{p}_x
– i \frac{\epsilon}{\Hbar} \hat{x} \hat{p}_y
}
\ket{\Psi}.
\end{equation}

Observe that the combination $$\hat{x} \hat{p}_y – \hat{y} \hat{p}_x$$ is the $$\hat{L}_z$$ component of angular momentum $$\hat{\BL} = \hat{\Br} \cross \hat{\Bp}$$, so the infinitesimal rotation can be written

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:380}
\boxed{
\hatR_z(\epsilon) \ket{\Psi}
=
\lr{ 1 – i \frac{\epsilon}{\Hbar} \hat{L}_z } \ket{\Psi}.
}
\end{equation}

For a finite rotation $$\epsilon \rightarrow 0, N \rightarrow \infty, \phi = \epsilon N$$, the total rotation is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:420}
\hatR_z(\phi)
=
\lr{ 1 – \frac{i \epsilon}{\Hbar} \hat{L}_z }^N,
\end{equation}

or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:440}
\boxed{
\hatR_z(\phi)
=
e^{-i \frac{\phi}{\Hbar} \hat{L}_z}.
}
\end{equation}

Note that $$\antisymmetric{\hat{L}_x}{\hat{L}_y} \ne 0$$.

By construction using Euler angles or any other method, a general rotation will include contributions from components of all the angular momentum operator, and will have the structure

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:480}
\boxed{
\hatR_\ncap(\phi)
=
e^{-i \frac{\phi}{\Hbar} \lr{ \hat{\BL} \cdot \ncap }}.
}
\end{equation}

### Rotationally invariant $$\hat{H}$$.

Given a rotationally invariant Hamiltonian

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:520}
\antisymmetric{\hat{R}_\ncap(\phi)}{\hat{H}} = 0 \qquad \forall \ncap, \phi,
\end{equation}

then every

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:540}
\antisymmetric{\BL \cdot \ncap}{\hat{H}} = 0,
\end{equation}

or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:560}
\antisymmetric{L_i}{\hat{H}} = 0,
\end{equation}

Non-Abelian implies degeneracies in the spectrum.

### Time-reversal

Imagine that we have something moving along a curve at time $$t = 0$$, and ending up at the final position at time $$t = t_f$$.

Imagine that we flip the direction of motion (i.e. flipping the velocity) and run time backwards so the final-time state becomes the initial state.

If the time reversal operator is designated $$\hat{\Theta}$$, with operation

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:580}
\hat{\Theta} \ket{\Psi} = \ket{\tilde{\Psi}},
\end{equation}

so that

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:600}
\hat{\Theta}^{-1} e^{-i \hat{H} t/\Hbar} \hat{\Theta} \ket{\Psi(t)} = \ket{\Psi(0)},
\end{equation}

or

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture12:620}
\hat{\Theta}^{-1} e^{-i \hat{H} t/\Hbar} \hat{\Theta} \ket{\Psi(0)} = \ket{\Psi(-t)}.
\end{equation}

# References

 Jun John Sakurai and Jim J Napolitano. Modern quantum mechanics. Pearson Higher Ed, 2014.

## PHY1520H Graduate Quantum Mechanics. Lecture 9: Dirac equation (cont.). Taught by Prof. Arun Paramekanti

### Disclaimer

Peeter’s lecture notes from class. These may be incoherent and rough.

These are notes for the UofT course PHY1520, Graduate Quantum Mechanics, taught by Prof. Paramekanti.

### Where we left off

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:20}
-i \Hbar \PD{t}{}
\begin{bmatrix}
\psi_1 \\
\psi_2
\end{bmatrix}
=
\begin{bmatrix}
-i \Hbar c \PD{x}{} & m c^2 \\
m c^2 & i \Hbar c \PD{x}{} \\
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{equation}

With a potential this would be

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:40}
-i \Hbar \PD{t}{}
\begin{bmatrix}
\psi_1 \\
\psi_2
\end{bmatrix}
=
\begin{bmatrix}
-i \Hbar c \PD{x}{} + V(x) & m c^2 \\
m c^2 & i \Hbar c \PD{x}{} + V(x) \\
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{equation}

This means that the potential is raising the energy eigenvalue of the system.

### Free Particle

Assuming a form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:60}
\begin{bmatrix}
\psi_1(x,t) \\
\psi_2(x,t)
\end{bmatrix}
=
e^{i k x}
\begin{bmatrix}
f_1(t) \\
f_2(t) \\
\end{bmatrix},
\end{equation}

and plugging back into the Dirac equation we have

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:80}
-i \Hbar \PD{t}{}
\begin{bmatrix}
f_1 \\
f_2
\end{bmatrix}
=
\begin{bmatrix}
k \Hbar c & m c^2 \\
m c^2 & – \Hbar k c \\
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
f_1 \\
f_2
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{equation}

We can use a diagonalizing rotation

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:100}
\begin{bmatrix}
f_1 \\
f_2
\end{bmatrix}
=
\begin{bmatrix}
\cos\theta_k & -\sin\theta_k \\
\sin\theta_k & \cos\theta_k \\
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
f_{+} \\
f_{-} \\
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{equation}

Plugging this in reduces the system to the form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:140}
-i \Hbar \PD{t}{}
\begin{bmatrix}
f_{+} \\
f_{-} \\
\end{bmatrix}
=
\begin{bmatrix}
E_k & 0 \\
0 & -E_k
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
f_{+} \\
f_{-} \\
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{equation}

Where the rotation angle is found to be given by

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:160}
\begin{aligned}
\sin(2 \theta_k) &= \frac{m c^2}{\sqrt{(\Hbar k c)^2 + m^2 c^4}} \\
\cos(2 \theta_k) &= \frac{\Hbar k c}{\sqrt{(\Hbar k c)^2 + m^2 c^4}} \\
E_k &= \sqrt{(\Hbar k c)^2 + m^2 c^4}
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

See fig. 1 for a sketch of energy vs momentum. The asymptotes are the limiting cases when $$m c^2 \rightarrow 0$$. The $$+$$ branch is what we usually associate with particles. What about the other energy states. For Fermions Dirac argued that the lower energy states could be thought of as “filled up”, using the Pauli principle to leave only the positive energy states available. This was called the “Dirac Sea”. This isn’t a good solution, and won’t work for example for Bosons.

Another way to rationalize this is to employ ideas from solid state theory. For example consider a semiconductor with a valence and conduction band as sketched in fig. 2.

A photon can excite an electron from the valence band to the conduction band, leaving all the valence band states filled except for one (a hole). For an electron we can use almost the same picture, as sketched in fig. 3.

A photon with energy $$E_k – (-E_k)$$ can create a positron-electron pair from the vacuum, where the energy of the electron and positron pair is $$E_k$$.

At high enough energies, we can see this pair creation occur.

### Zitterbewegung

If a particle is created at a non-eigenstate such as one on the asymptotes, then oscillations between the positive and negative branches are possible as sketched in fig. 4.

Only “vertical” oscillations between the positive and negative locations on these branches is possible since those are the points that match the particle momentum. Examining this will be the aim of one of the problem set problems.

### Probability and current density

If we define a probability density

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:180}
\rho(x, t) = \Abs{\psi_1}^2 + \Abs{\psi_2}^2,
\end{equation}

does this satisfy a probability conservation relation

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:200}
\PD{t}{\rho} + \PD{x}{j} = 0,
\end{equation}

where $$j$$ is the probability current. Plugging in the density, we have

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:220}
\PD{t}{\rho}
=
\PD{t}{\psi_1^\conj} \psi_1
+
\psi_1^\conj \PD{t}{\psi_1}
+
\PD{t}{\psi_2^\conj} \psi_2
+
\psi_2^\conj \PD{t}{\psi_2}.
\end{equation}

It turns out that the probability current has the form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:240}
j(x,t) = c \lr{ \psi_1^\conj \psi_1 + \psi_2^\conj \psi_2 }.
\end{equation}

Here the speed of light $$c$$ is the slope of the line in the plots above. We can think of this current density as right movers minus the left movers. Any state that is given can be thought of as a combination of right moving and left moving states, neither of which are eigenstates of the free particle Hamiltonian.

### Potential step

The next logical thing to think about, as in non-relativistic quantum mechanics, is to think about what occurs when the particle hits a potential step, as in fig. 5.

The approach is the same. We write down the wave functions for the $$V = 0$$ region (I), and the higher potential region (II).

The eigenstates are found on the solid lines above the asymptotes on the right hand movers side as sketched in fig. 6. The right and left moving designations are based on the phase velocity $$\PDi{k}{E}$$ (approaching $$\pm c$$ on the top-right and top-left quadrants respectively).

For $$k > 0$$, an eigenstate for the incident wave is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:261}
\Bpsi_{\textrm{inc}}(x) =
\begin{bmatrix}
\cos\theta_k \\
\sin\theta_k
\end{bmatrix}
e^{i k x},
\end{equation}

For the reflected wave function, we pick a function on the left moving side of the positive energy branch.

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:260}
\Bpsi_{\textrm{ref}}(x) =
\begin{bmatrix}
? \\
?
\end{bmatrix}
e^{-i k x},
\end{equation}

We’ll go through this in more detail next time.

## Question: Calculate the right going diagonalization

Prove (7).

To determine the relations for $$\theta_k$$ we have to solve

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:280}
\begin{bmatrix}
E_k & 0 \\
0 & -E_k
\end{bmatrix}
= R^{-1} H R.
\end{equation}

Working with $$\Hbar = c = 1$$ temporarily, and $$C = \cos\theta_k, S = \sin\theta_k$$, that is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:300}
\begin{aligned}
\begin{bmatrix}
E_k & 0 \\
0 & -E_k
\end{bmatrix}
&=
\begin{bmatrix}
C & S \\
-S & C
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
k & m \\
m & -k
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
C & -S \\
S & C
\end{bmatrix} \\
&=
\begin{bmatrix}
C & S \\
-S & C
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
k C + m S & -k S + m C \\
m C – k S & -m S – k C
\end{bmatrix} \\
&=
\begin{bmatrix}
k C^2 + m S C + m C S – k S^2 & -k S C + m C^2 -m S^2 – k C S \\
-k C S – m S^2 + m C^2 – k S C & k S^2 – m C S -m S C – k C^2
\end{bmatrix} \\
&=
\begin{bmatrix}
k \cos(2 \theta_k) + m \sin(2 \theta_k) & m \cos(2 \theta_k) – k \sin(2 \theta_k) \\
m \cos(2 \theta_k) – k \sin(2 \theta_k) & -k \cos(2 \theta_k) – m \sin(2 \theta_k) \\
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:320}
\begin{aligned}
E_k
\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}
&=
\begin{bmatrix}
k \cos(2 \theta_k) + m \sin(2 \theta_k) \\
m \cos(2 \theta_k) – k \sin(2 \theta_k) \\
\end{bmatrix} \\
&=
\begin{bmatrix}
k & m \\
m & -k
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
\cos(2 \theta_k) \\
\sin(2 \theta_k) \\
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Adding back in the $$\Hbar$$’s and $$c$$’s this is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:340}
\begin{aligned}
\begin{bmatrix}
\cos(2 \theta_k) \\
\sin(2 \theta_k) \\
\end{bmatrix}
&=
\frac{E_k}{-(\Hbar k c)^2 -(m c^2)^2}
\begin{bmatrix}
– \Hbar k c & – m c^2 \\
– m c^2 & \Hbar k c
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix} \\
&=
\inv{E_k}
\begin{bmatrix}
\Hbar k c \\
m c^2
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

## Question: Verify the Dirac current relationship.

Prove \ref{eqn:qmLecture9:240}.

The components of the Schrodinger equation are

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:360}
\begin{aligned}
-i \Hbar \PD{t}{\psi_1} &= -i \Hbar c \PD{x}{\psi_1} + m c^2 \psi_2 \\
-i \Hbar \PD{t}{\psi_2} &= m c^2 \psi_1 + i \Hbar c \PD{x}{\psi_2},
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The conjugates of these are
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:380}
\begin{aligned}
i \Hbar \PD{t}{\psi_1^\conj} &= i \Hbar c \PD{x}{\psi_1^\conj} + m c^2 \psi_2^\conj \\
i \Hbar \PD{t}{\psi_2^\conj} &= m c^2 \psi_1^\conj – i \Hbar c \PD{x}{\psi_2^\conj}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This gives
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:400}
\begin{aligned}
i \Hbar \PD{t}{\rho}
&=
\lr{ i \Hbar c \PD{x}{\psi_1^\conj} + m c^2 \psi_2^\conj } \psi_1 \\
&+ \psi_1^\conj \lr{ i \Hbar c \PD{x}{\psi_1} – m c^2 \psi_2 } \\
&+ \lr{ m c^2 \psi_1^\conj – i \Hbar c \PD{x}{\psi_2^\conj} } \psi_2 \\
&+ \psi_2^\conj \lr{ -m c^2 \psi_1 – i \Hbar c \PD{x}{\psi_2} }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

All the non-derivative terms cancel leaving

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:qmLecture9:420}
\inv{c} \PD{t}{\rho}
=
\PD{x}{\psi_1^\conj} \psi_1
+ \psi_1^\conj \PD{x}{\psi_1}
– \PD{x}{\psi_2^\conj} \psi_2
– \psi_2^\conj \PD{x}{\psi_2}
=
\PD{x}{}
\lr{
\psi_1^\conj \psi_1 –
\psi_2^\conj \psi_2
}.
\end{equation}

## Pauli matrix problems

July 21, 2015 phy1520 No comments ,

### Q:  problem 1.2.

Given an arbitrary $$2 \times 2$$ matrix $$X = a_0 + \Bsigma \cdot \Ba$$,
show the relationships between $$a_\mu$$ and $$\textrm{tr}(X), \textrm{tr}(\sigma_k X)$$, and $$X_{ij}$$.

### A.

Observe that each of the Pauli matrices $$\sigma_k$$ are traceless

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:20}
\begin{aligned}
\sigma_x &= \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 \\ \end{bmatrix} \\
\sigma_y &= \begin{bmatrix} 0 & -i \\ i & 0 \\ \end{bmatrix} \\
\sigma_z &= \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \\ \end{bmatrix} \\
\end{aligned},
\end{equation}

so $$\textrm{tr}(X) = 2 a_0$$. Note that $$\textrm{tr}(\sigma_k \sigma_m) = 2 \delta_{k m}$$, so $$\textrm{tr}(\sigma_k X) = 2 a_k$$.

Notationally, it would seem to make sense to define $$\sigma_0 \equiv I$$, so that $$\textrm{tr}(\sigma_\mu X) = a_\mu$$. I don’t know if that is common practice.

For the opposite relations, given

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:40}
\begin{aligned}
X
&= a_0 + \Bsigma \cdot \Ba \\
&= \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \\ \end{bmatrix} a_0 + \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 \\ \end{bmatrix} a_1 + \begin{bmatrix} 0 & -i \\ i & 0 \\ \end{bmatrix} a_2 + \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \\ \end{bmatrix} a_3 \\
&=
\begin{bmatrix}
a_0 + a_3 & a_1 – i a_2 \\
a_1 + i a_2 & a_0 – a_3
\end{bmatrix} \\
&=
\begin{bmatrix}
X_{11} & X_{12} \\
X_{21} & X_{22} \\
\end{bmatrix},
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

so

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:80}
\begin{aligned}
a_0 &= \inv{2} \lr{ X_{11} + X_{22} } \\
a_1 &= \inv{2} \lr{ X_{12} + X_{21} } \\
a_2 &= \inv{2 i} \lr{ X_{21} – X_{12} } \\
a_3 &= \inv{2} \lr{ X_{11} – X_{22} }
\end{aligned}.
\end{equation}

### Q:  problem 1.3. Determine the structure and determinant of the transformation

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:100}
\Bsigma \cdot \Ba \rightarrow
\Bsigma \cdot \Ba’ =
\exp\lr{ i \Bsigma \cdot \ncap \phi/2}
\Bsigma \cdot \Ba
\exp\lr{ -i \Bsigma \cdot \ncap \phi/2}.
\end{equation}

### A.

Knowing Geometric Algebra, this is recognized as a rotation transformation. In GA, $$i$$ is treated as a pseudoscalar (which commutes with all grades in \R{3}), and the expression can be reduced to one involving dot and wedge products. Let’s see how can this be reduced using only the Pauli matrix toolbox.

First, consider the determinant of one of the exponentials. Showing that one such exponential has unit determinant is sufficient. The matrix representation of the unit normal is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:120}
\begin{aligned}
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap
&= n_x \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 \\ \end{bmatrix}
+ n_y \begin{bmatrix} 0 & -i \\ i & 0 \\ \end{bmatrix}
+ n_z \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \\ \end{bmatrix} \\
&=
\begin{bmatrix}
n_z & n_x – i n_y \\
n_x + i n_y & -n_z
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This is expected to have a unit square, and does

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:140}
\begin{aligned}
\lr{ \Bsigma \cdot \ncap }^2
&=
\begin{bmatrix}
n_z & n_x – i n_y \\
n_x + i n_y & -n_z
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
n_z & n_x – i n_y \\
n_x + i n_y & -n_z
\end{bmatrix} \\
&=
\lr{ n_x^2 + n_y^2 + n_z^2 }
\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 \\
0 & 1
\end{bmatrix} \\
&=
1.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This allows for a cosine and sine expansion of the exponential, as in

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:160}
\begin{aligned}
\exp\lr{ i \Bsigma \cdot \ncap \theta}
&=
\cos\theta + i \Bsigma \cdot \ncap \sin\theta \\
&=
\cos\theta
\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 \\
0 & 1
\end{bmatrix}
+
i \sin\theta
\begin{bmatrix}
n_z & n_x – i n_y \\
n_x + i n_y & -n_z
\end{bmatrix} \\
&=
\begin{bmatrix}
\cos\theta + i n_z \sin\theta & \lr{ n_x – i n_y } i \sin\theta \\
\lr{ n_x + i n_y } i \sin\theta & \cos\theta – i n_z \sin\theta \\
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This has determinant

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:180}
\begin{aligned}
\Abs{\exp\lr{ i \Bsigma \cdot \ncap \theta} }
&=
\cos^2\theta + n_z^2 \sin^2\theta

\lr{ -n_x^2 + -n_y^2 } \sin^2\theta \\
&=
\cos^2\theta + \lr{ n_x^2 + n_y^2 + n_z^2 } \sin^2\theta \\
&= 1,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

as expected.

Next step is to show that this transformation is a rotation, and determine the sense of the rotation. Let $$C = \cos\phi/2, S = \sin\phi/2$$, so that

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:200}
\begin{aligned}
\Bsigma \cdot \Ba’
&=
\exp\lr{ i \Bsigma \cdot \ncap \phi/2}
\Bsigma \cdot \Ba
\exp\lr{ -i \Bsigma \cdot \ncap \phi/2} \\
&=
\lr{ C + i \Bsigma \cdot \ncap S }
\Bsigma \cdot \Ba
\lr{ C – i \Bsigma \cdot \ncap S } \\
&=
\lr{ C + i \Bsigma \cdot \ncap S }
\lr{ C \Bsigma \cdot \Ba – i \Bsigma \cdot \Ba \Bsigma \cdot \ncap S } \\
&=
C^2 \Bsigma \cdot \Ba + \Bsigma \cdot \ncap \Bsigma \cdot \Ba \Bsigma \cdot \ncap S^2
+ i \lr{
-\Bsigma \cdot \Ba \Bsigma \cdot \ncap
+ \Bsigma \cdot \ncap \Bsigma \cdot \Ba
} S C \\
&=
\inv{2} \lr{ 1 + \cos\phi}
\Bsigma \cdot \Ba
+ \Bsigma \cdot \ncap \Bsigma \cdot \Ba \Bsigma \cdot \ncap \inv{2} \lr{ 1 – \cos\phi}
+ i
\antisymmetric{
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap }{\Bsigma \cdot \Ba }
\inv{2} \sin\phi \\
&=
\inv{2}
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap
\symmetric{
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap }{\Bsigma \cdot \Ba }
+ \inv{2}
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap
\antisymmetric{
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap }{\Bsigma \cdot \Ba } \cos\phi
+
\inv{2}
i
\antisymmetric{
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap }{\Bsigma \cdot \Ba }
\sin\phi.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Observe that the angle dependent portion can be written in a compact exponential form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:220}
\begin{aligned}
\Bsigma \cdot \Ba’
&=
\inv{2}
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap
\symmetric{
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap }{\Bsigma \cdot \Ba }
+
\lr{
\cos\phi
+
i
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap
\sin\phi
}
\inv{2}
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap
\antisymmetric{
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap }{\Bsigma \cdot \Ba } \\
&=
\inv{2}
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap
\symmetric{
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap }{\Bsigma \cdot \Ba }
+
\exp\lr{ i \Bsigma \cdot \ncap \phi }
\inv{2}
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap
\antisymmetric{
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap }{\Bsigma \cdot \Ba }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The anticommutator and commutator products with the unit normal can be identified as projections and rejections respectively. Consider the symmetric product first

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:240}
\begin{aligned}
\inv{2}
\symmetric{
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap }{\Bsigma \cdot \Ba } \\
&=
\inv{2}
\sum n_r a_s \lr{ \sigma_r \sigma_s + \sigma_s \sigma_r } \\
&=
\inv{2}
\sum_{r \ne s} n_r a_s \lr{ \sigma_r \sigma_s + \sigma_s \sigma_r }
+
\inv{2}
\sum_{r } n_r a_r 2 \\
&= 2 \ncap \cdot \Ba.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This shows that
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:260}
\inv{2}
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap
\symmetric{
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap }{\Bsigma \cdot \Ba }
=
\lr{ \ncap \cdot \Ba } \Bsigma \cdot \ncap,
\end{equation}

which is the projection of $$\Ba$$ in the direction of the normal $$\ncap$$. To show that the commutator term is the rejection, consider the sum of the two

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:280}
\begin{aligned}
\inv{2}
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap
\symmetric{
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap }{\Bsigma \cdot \Ba }
+
\inv{2}
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap
\antisymmetric{
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap }{\Bsigma \cdot \Ba }
&=
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap \Bsigma \cdot \Ba \\
&=
\Bsigma \cdot \Ba,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

so we must have

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:300}
\Bsigma \cdot \Ba – \lr{ \ncap \cdot \Ba } \Bsigma \cdot \ncap
=
\inv{2}
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap
\antisymmetric{
\Bsigma \cdot \ncap }{\Bsigma \cdot \Ba }.
\end{equation}

This is the component of $$\Ba$$ that has the projection in the $$\ncap$$ direction removed. Looking back to \ref{eqn:pauliProblems:220}, the transformation leaves components of the vector that are colinear with the unit normal unchanged, and applies an exponential operation to the component that lies in what is presumed to be the rotation plane. To verify that this latter portion of the transformation is a rotation, and to determine the sense of the rotation, let’s expand the factor of the sine of \ref{eqn:pauliProblems:200}.

That is

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:320}
\begin{aligned}
\frac{i}{2} \antisymmetric{ \Bsigma \cdot \ncap }{\Bsigma \cdot \Ba }
&=
\frac{i}{2} \sum n_r a_s \antisymmetric{ \sigma_r }{\sigma_s } \\
&=
\frac{i}{2} \sum n_r a_s 2 i \epsilon_{r s t} \sigma_t \\
&=
– \sum \sigma_t n_r a_s \epsilon_{r s t} \\
&=
-\Bsigma \cdot \lr{ \ncap \cross \Ba } \\
&=
\Bsigma \cdot \lr{ \Ba \cross \ncap }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

Since $$\Ba \cross \ncap = \lr{ \Ba – \ncap (\ncap \cdot \Ba) } \cross \ncap$$, this vector is seen to lie in the plane normal to $$\ncap$$, but perpendicular to the rejection of $$\ncap$$ from $$\Ba$$. That completes the demonstration that this is a rotation transformation.

To understand the sense of this rotation, consider $$\ncap = \zcap, \Ba = \xcap$$, so

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:340}
\Bsigma \cdot \lr{ \Ba \cross \ncap }
=
\Bsigma \cdot \lr{ \xcap \cross \zcap }
=
-\Bsigma \cdot \ycap,
\end{equation}

and
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:pauliProblems:360}
\Bsigma \cdot \Ba’
=
\xcap \cos\phi – \ycap \sin\phi,
\end{equation}

showing that this rotation transformation has a clockwise sense.

# References

 Jun John Sakurai and Jim J Napolitano. Modern quantum mechanics. Pearson Higher Ed, 2014.