spin

Spin three halves spin interaction

December 15, 2015 phy1520 No comments , , , ,

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Q: [1] pr 3.33

A spin \( 3/2 \) nucleus subjected to an external electric field has an interaction Hamiltonian of the form

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:spinThreeHalvesNucleus:20}
H = \frac{e Q}{2 s(s-1) \Hbar^2} \lr{
\lr{\PDSq{x}{\phi}}_0 S_x^2
+\lr{\PDSq{y}{\phi}}_0 S_y^2
+\lr{\PDSq{z}{\phi}}_0 S_z^2
}.
\end{equation}

Show that the interaction energy can be written as

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:spinThreeHalvesNucleus:40}
A(3 S_z^2 – \BS^2) + B(S_{+}^2 + S_{-}^2).
\end{equation}

Find the energy eigenvalues for such a Hamiltonian.

A:

Reordering
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:spinThreeHalvesNucleus:60}
\begin{aligned}
S_{+} &= S_x + i S_y \\
S_{-} &= S_x – i S_y,
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

gives
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:spinThreeHalvesNucleus:80}
\begin{aligned}
S_x &= \inv{2} \lr{ S_{+} + S_{-} } \\
S_y &= \inv{2i} \lr{ S_{+} – S_{-} }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The squared spin operators are
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:spinThreeHalvesNucleus:100}
\begin{aligned}
S_x^2
&=
\inv{4} \lr{ S_{+}^2 + S_{-}^2 + S_{+} S_{-} + S_{-} S_{+} } \\
&=
\inv{4} \lr{ S_{+}^2 + S_{-}^2 + 2( S_x^2 + S_y^2 ) } \\
&=
\inv{4} \lr{ S_{+}^2 + S_{-}^2 + 2( \BS^2 – S_z^2 ) },
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:spinThreeHalvesNucleus:120}
\begin{aligned}
S_y^2
&=
-\inv{4} \lr{ S_{+}^2 + S_{-}^2 – S_{+} S_{-} – S_{-} S_{+} } \\
&=
-\inv{4} \lr{ S_{+}^2 + S_{-}^2 – 2( S_x^2 + S_y^2 ) } \\
&=
-\inv{4} \lr{ S_{+}^2 + S_{-}^2 – 2( \BS^2 – S_z^2 ) }.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

This gives
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:spinThreeHalvesNucleus:140}
\begin{aligned}
H &= \frac{e Q}{2 s(s-1) \Hbar^2} \biglr{ \inv{4} \lr{\PDSq{x}{\phi}}_0 \lr{ S_{+}^2 + S_{-}^2 + 2( \BS^2 – S_z^2 ) }
-\lr{\PDSq{y}{\phi}}_0 \lr{ S_{+}^2 + S_{-}^2 – 2( \BS^2 – S_z^2 ) }
+\lr{\PDSq{z}{\phi}}_0 S_z^2 } \\
&= \frac{e Q}{2 s(s-1) \Hbar^2} \biglr{ \inv{4} \lr{ \lr{\PDSq{x}{\phi}}_0 -\lr{\PDSq{y}{\phi}}_0 } \lr{ S_{+}^2 + S_{-}^2 }
+ \inv{2} \lr{ \lr{\PDSq{x}{\phi}}_0 + \lr{\PDSq{y}{\phi}}_0 } \BS^2
+ \lr{ \lr{\PDSq{z}{\phi}}_0 – \inv{2} \lr{\PDSq{x}{\phi}}_0 – \inv{2} \lr{\PDSq{y}{\phi}}_0 } S_z^2
}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

For a static electric field we have

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:spinThreeHalvesNucleus:160}
\spacegrad^2 \phi = -\frac{\rho}{\epsilon_0},
\end{equation}

but are evaluating it at a point away from the generating charge distribution, so \( \spacegrad^2 \phi = 0 \) at that point. This gives

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:spinThreeHalvesNucleus:180}
H
=
\frac{e Q}{4 s(s-1) \Hbar^2}
\biglr{
\inv{2} \lr{ \lr{\PDSq{x}{\phi}}_0 -\lr{\PDSq{y}{\phi}}_0
} \lr{ S_{+}^2 + S_{-}^2 }
+
\lr{
\lr{\PDSq{x}{\phi}}_0 + \lr{\PDSq{y}{\phi}}_0
} (\BS^2 – 3 S_z^2)
},
\end{equation}

so
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:spinThreeHalvesNucleus:200}
A =
-\frac{e Q}{4 s(s-1) \Hbar^2} \lr{
\lr{\PDSq{x}{\phi}}_0 + \lr{\PDSq{y}{\phi}}_0
}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:spinThreeHalvesNucleus:220}
B =
\frac{e Q}{8 s(s-1) \Hbar^2}
\lr{ \lr{\PDSq{x}{\phi}}_0 – \lr{\PDSq{y}{\phi}}_0 }.
\end{equation}

A: energy eigenvalues

Using sakuraiProblem3.33.nb, matrix representations for the spin three halves operators and the Hamiltonian were constructed with respect to the basis \( \setlr{ \ket{3/2}, \ket{1/2}, \ket{-1/2}, \ket{-3/2} } \)

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:spinThreeHalvesNucleus:240}
\begin{aligned}
S_{+} &=
\Hbar
\begin{bmatrix}
0 & \sqrt{3} & 0 & 0 \\
0 & 0 & 2 & 0 \\
0 & 0 & 0 & \sqrt{3} \\
0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\
\end{bmatrix} \\
S_{-} &=
\Hbar
\begin{bmatrix}
0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\
\sqrt{3} & 0 & 0 & 0 \\
0 & 2 & 0 & 0 \\
0 & 0 & \sqrt{3} & 0 \\
\end{bmatrix} \\
S_x &=
\Hbar
\begin{bmatrix}
0 & \sqrt{3}/2 & 0 & 0 \\
\sqrt{3}/2 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\
0 & 1 & 0 & \sqrt{3}/2 \\
0 & 0 & \sqrt{3}/2 & 0 \\
\end{bmatrix} \\
S_y &=
i \Hbar
\begin{bmatrix}
0 & -\ifrac{\sqrt{3}}{2} & 0 & 0 \\
\ifrac{\sqrt{3}}{2} & 0 & -1 & 0 \\
0 & 1 & 0 & -\ifrac{\sqrt{3}}{2} \\
0 & 0 & \ifrac{\sqrt{3}}{2} & 0 \\
\end{bmatrix} \\
S_z &=
\frac{\Hbar}{2}
\begin{bmatrix}
3 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\
0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\
0 & 0 & -1 & 0 \\
0 & 0 & 0 & -3 \\
\end{bmatrix} \\
H &=
\begin{bmatrix}
3 A & 0 & 2 \sqrt{3} B & 0 \\
0 & -3 A & 0 & 2 \sqrt{3} B \\
2 \sqrt{3} B & 0 & -3 A & 0 \\
0 & 2 \sqrt{3} B & 0 & 3 A \\
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The energy eigenvalues are found to be

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:spinThreeHalvesNucleus:260}
E = \pm \Hbar^2 \sqrt{9 A^2 + 12 B^2 },
\end{equation}

with two fold degeneracies for each eigenvalue.

References

[1] Jun John Sakurai and Jim J Napolitano. Modern quantum mechanics. Pearson Higher Ed, 2014.

Some spin problems

October 30, 2015 phy1520 No comments , ,

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Problems from angular momentum chapter of [1].

Q: \( S_y \) eigenvectors

Find the eigenvectors of \( \sigma_y \), and then find the probability that a measurement of \( S_y \) will be \( \Hbar/2 \) when the state is initially

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:20}
\begin{bmatrix}
\alpha \\
\beta
\end{bmatrix}
\end{equation}

A:

The eigenvalues should be \( \pm 1 \), which is easily checked

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:40}
\begin{aligned}
0
&=
\Abs{ \sigma_y – \lambda } \\
&=
\begin{vmatrix}
-\lambda & -i \\
i & -\lambda
\end{vmatrix} \\
&=
\lambda^2 – 1.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

For \( \ket{+} = (a,b)^\T \) we must have

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:60}
-1 a – i b = 0,
\end{equation}

so

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:80}
\ket{+} \propto
\begin{bmatrix}
-i \\
1
\end{bmatrix},
\end{equation}

or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:100}
\ket{+} =
\inv{\sqrt{2}}
\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
i
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{equation}

For \( \ket{-} \) we must have

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:120}
a – i b = 0,
\end{equation}

so

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:140}
\ket{+} \propto
\begin{bmatrix}
i \\
1
\end{bmatrix},
\end{equation}

or
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:160}
\ket{+} =
\inv{\sqrt{2}}
\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
-i
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{equation}

The normalized eigenvectors are

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:180}
\boxed{
\ket{\pm} =
\inv{\sqrt{2}}
\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
\pm i
\end{bmatrix}.
}
\end{equation}

For the probability question we are interested in

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:200}
\begin{aligned}
\Abs{\bra{S_y; +}
\begin{bmatrix}
\alpha \\
\beta
\end{bmatrix}
}^2
&=
\inv{2} \Abs{
\begin{bmatrix}
1 & -i
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
\alpha \\
\beta
\end{bmatrix}
}^2 \\
&=
\inv{2} \lr{ \Abs{\alpha}^2 + \Abs{\beta}^2 } \\
&=
\inv{2}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

There is a 50 % chance of finding the particle in the \( \ket{S_x;+} \) state, independent of the initial state.

Q: Magnetic Hamiltonian eigenvectors

Using Pauli matrices, find the eigenvectors for the magnetic spin interaction Hamiltonian

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:220}
H = – \inv{\Hbar} 2 \mu \BS \cdot \BB.
\end{equation}

A:

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:240}
\begin{aligned}
H
&= – \mu \Bsigma \cdot \BB \\
&= – \mu \lr{ B_x \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 \\ \end{bmatrix} + B_y
\begin{bmatrix} 0 & -i \\ i & 0 \\ \end{bmatrix} + B_z \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0
\\ 0 & -1 \\ \end{bmatrix} } \\
&= – \mu
\begin{bmatrix}
B_z & B_x – i B_y \\
B_x + i B_y & -B_z
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

The characteristic equation is
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:260}
\begin{aligned}
0
&=
\begin{vmatrix}
-\mu B_z -\lambda & -\mu(B_x – i B_y) \\
-\mu(B_x + i B_y) & \mu B_z – \lambda
\end{vmatrix} \\
&=
-\lr{ (\mu B_z)^2 – \lambda^2 }
– \mu^2\lr{ B_x^2 – (iB_y)^2 } \\
&=
\lambda^2 – \mu^2 \BB^2.
\end{aligned}
\end{equation}

That is
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:360}
\boxed{
\lambda = \pm \mu B.
}
\end{equation}

Now for the eigenvectors. We are looking for \( \ket{\pm} = (a,b)^\T \) such that

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:300}
0
= (-\mu B_z \mp \mu B) a -\mu(B_x – i B_y) b
\end{equation}

or

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:320}
\ket{\pm} \propto
\begin{bmatrix}
B_x – i B_y \\
B_z \pm B
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{equation}

This squares to

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:340}
B_x^2 + B_y^2 + B_z^2 + B^2 \pm 2 B B_z
= 2 B( B \pm B_z ),
\end{equation}

so the normalized eigenkets are
\begin{equation}\label{eqn:someSpinProblems:380}
\boxed{
\ket{\pm}
=
\inv{\sqrt{2 B( B \pm B_z )}}
\begin{bmatrix}
B_x – i B_y \\
B_z \pm B
\end{bmatrix}.
}
\end{equation}

References

[1] Jun John Sakurai and Jim J Napolitano. Modern quantum mechanics. Pearson Higher Ed, 2014.