## Final notes for ECE1254, Modelling of Multiphysics Systems

I’ve now finished my first grad course, Modelling of Multiphysics Systems, taught by Prof Piero Triverio.

I’ve posted notes for lectures and other material as I was taking the course, but now have an aggregated set of notes for the whole course posted.
This is now updated with all my notes from the lectures, solved problems, additional notes on auxillary topics I wanted to explore (like SVD), plus the notes from the Harmonic Balance report that Mike and I will be presenting in January.

This version of my notes also includes all the matlab figures regenerating using http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/23629-export-fig, which allows a save-as pdf, which rescales much better than Matlab saveas() png’s when embedded in latex.  I’m not sure if that’s the best way to include Matlab figures in latex, but they are at least not fuzzy looking now.

All in all, I’m pretty pleased with my notes for this course.  They are a lot more readable than any of the ones I’ve done for the physics undergrad courses I was taking (https://peeterjoot.com/writing/).  While there was quite a lot covered in this course, the material really only requires an introductory circuits course and some basic math (linear algebra and intro calculus), so is pretty accessible.

This was a fun course.  I recall, back in ancient times when I was a first year student, being unsatisfied with all the ad-hoc strategies we used to solve circuits problems.  This finally answers the questions of how to tackle things more systematically.

Here’s the contents outline for these notes:

Preface
Lecture notes
1 nodal analysis
1.1 In slides
1.2 Mechanical structures example
1.3 Assembling system equations automatically. Node/branch method
1.4 Nodal Analysis
1.5 Modified nodal analysis (MNA)
2 solving large systems
2.1 Gaussian elimination
2.2 LU decomposition
2.3 Problems
3 numerical errors and conditioning
3.1 Strict diagonal dominance
3.2 Exploring uniqueness and existence
3.3 Perturbation and norms
3.4 Matrix norm
4 singular value decomposition, and conditioning number
4.1 Singular value decomposition
4.2 Conditioning number
5 sparse factorization
5.1 Fill ins
5.2 Markowitz product
5.3 Markowitz reordering
5.4 Graph representation
6.1 Summary of factorization costs
6.2 Iterative methods
6.4 Recap: Summary of Gradient method
6.6 Full Algorithm
6.7 Order analysis
6.9 Gershgorin circle theorem
6.10 Preconditioning
6.11 Symmetric preconditioning
6.13 Problems
7 solution of nonlinear systems
7.1 Nonlinear systems
7.2 Richardson and Linear Convergence
7.3 Newton’s method
7.4 Solution of N nonlinear equations in N unknowns
7.5 Multivariable Newton’s iteration
7.6 Automatic assembly of equations for nonlinear system
7.7 Damped Newton’s method
7.8 Continuation parameters
7.9 Singular Jacobians
7.10 Struts and Joints, Node branch formulation
7.11 Problems
8 time dependent systems
8.1 Assembling equations automatically for dynamical systems
8.2 Numerical solution of differential equations
8.3 Forward Euler method
8.4 Backward Euler method
8.5 Trapezoidal rule (TR)
8.6 Nonlinear differential equations
8.7 Analysis, accuracy and stability (Dt ! 0)
8.8 Residual for LMS methods
8.9 Global error estimate
8.10 Stability
8.11 Stability (continued)
8.12 Problems
9 model order reduction
9.1 Model order reduction
9.2 Moment matching
9.3 Model order reduction (cont).
9.4 Moment matching
9.5 Truncated Balanced Realization (1000 ft overview)
9.6 Problems
Final report
10 harmonic balance
10.1 Abstract
10.2 Introduction
10.2.1 Modifications to the netlist syntax
10.3 Background
10.3.1 Discrete Fourier Transform
10.3.2 Harmonic Balance equations
10.3.3 Frequency domain representation of MNA equations
10.3.4 Example. RC circuit with a diode.
10.3.5 Jacobian
10.3.6 Newton’s method solution
10.3.7 Alternative handling of the non-linear currents and Jacobians
10.4 Results
10.4.1 Low pass filter
10.4.2 Half wave rectifier
10.4.3 AC to DC conversion
10.4.4 Bridge rectifier
10.4.5 Cpu time and error vs N
10.4.6 Taylor series non-linearities
10.4.7 Stiff systems
10.5 Conclusion
10.6 Appendices
10.6.1 Discrete Fourier Transform inversion
Appendices
a singular value decomposition
b basic theorems and definitions
c norton equivalents
d stability of discretized linear differential equations
e laplace transform refresher
f discrete fourier transform
g harmonic balance, rough notes
g.1 Block matrix form, with physical parameter ordering
g.2 Block matrix form, with frequency ordering
g.3 Representing the linear sources
g.4 Representing non-linear sources
g.5 Newton’s method
g.6 A matrix formulation of Harmonic Balance non-linear currents
h matlab notebooks
i mathematica notebooks
Index
Bibliography

## ECE1254H Modeling of Multiphysics Systems. Lecture 19: Model order reduction (cont).. Taught by Prof. Piero Triverio

November 26, 2014 ece1254 , , ,

## Disclaimer

Peeter’s lecture notes from class. These may be incoherent and rough.

## Model order reduction (cont).

An approximation of the following system is sought

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:20}
\BG \Bx(t) + C \dot{\Bx}(t) = B \Bu(t)

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:40}
\By(t) = \BL^\T \Bx(t).

The strategy is to attempt to find a $$N \times q$$ projector $$\BV$$ of the form

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:60}
\BV =
\begin{bmatrix}
\Bv_1 & \Bv_2 & \cdots & \Bv_q
\end{bmatrix}

so that the solution of the constrained q-variable state vector $$\Bx_q$$ is sought after letting

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:80}
\Bx(t) = \BV \Bx_q(t).

## Moment matching

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:100}
\begin{aligned}
\BF(s)
&= \lr{ \BG + s \BC }^{-1} \BB \\
&= \BM_0 + \BM_1 s + \BM_2 s^2 + \cdots + \BM_{q-1} s^{q-1} + M_q s^q + \cdots
\end{aligned}

The reduced model is created such that

\label{eqn:multiphysicsProblemSet3b:120}
\BF_q(s)
=
\BM_0 + \BM_1 s + \BM_2 s^2 + \cdots + \BM_{q-1} s^{q-1} + \tilde{\BM}_q s^q.

Form an $$N \times q$$ projection matrix

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:140}
\BV_q \equiv
\begin{bmatrix}
\BM_0 & \BM_1 & \cdots & \BM_{q-1}
\end{bmatrix}

With the substitution of fig. 1, becomes

This is a system of $$N$$ equations, in $$q$$ unknowns. A set of moments from the frequency domain have been used to project the time domain system. This relies on the following unproved theorem (references to come)

### Theorem

If $$\text{span}\{ \Bv_q \} = \text{span} \{ \BM_0, \BM_1, \cdots, \BM_{q-1} \}$$, then the reduced model will match the first $$q$$ moments.

Left multiplication by $$\BV_q^\T$$ yields fig. 2.

This is now a system of $$q$$ equations in $$q$$ unknowns.

With

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:160}
\BG_q = \BV_q^\T \BG \BV_q

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:180}
\BC_q = \BV_q^\T \BC \BV_q

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:200}
\BB_q = \BV_q^\T \BB

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:220}
\BL_q^\T = \BL^\T \BV_q

the system is reduced to

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:240}
\BG_q \Bx_q(t) + \BC_q \dot{\Bx}_q(t) = \BB_q \Bu(t).

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:260}
\By(t) \approx \BL_q^\T \Bx_q(t)

### Moments calculation

Using
\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:300}
\lr{ \BG + s \BC }^{-1} \BB = \BM_0 + \BM_1 s + \BM_2 s^2 + \cdots

thus
\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:320}
\begin{aligned}
\BB &=
\lr{ \BG + s \BC }
\BM_0 +
\lr{ \BG + s \BC }
\BM_1 s +
\lr{ \BG + s \BC }
\BM_2 s^2 + \cdots \\
&=
\BG \BM_0
+ s \lr{ C \BM_0 + \BG \BM_1 }
+ s^2 \lr{ C \BM_1 + \BG \BM_2 }
+ \cdots
\end{aligned}

Since $$\BB$$ is a zeroth order matrix, setting all the coefficients of $$s$$ equal to zero provides a method to solve for the moments

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:340}
\begin{aligned}
\BB &= \BG \BM_0 \\
-\BC \BM_0 &= \BG \BM_1 \\
-\BC \BM_1 &= \BG \BM_2 \\
\end{aligned}

The moment $$\BM_0$$ can be found with LU of $$\BG$$, plus the forward and backward substitutions. Proceeding recursively, using the already computed LU factorization, each subsequent moment calculation requires only one pair of forward and backward substitutions.

Numerically, each moment has the exact value

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:360}
\BM_q = \lr{- \BG^{-1} \BC }^q \BM_0.

As $$q \rightarrow \infty$$, this goes to some limit, say $$\Bw$$. The value $$\Bw$$ is related to the largest eigenvalue of $$-\BG^{-1} \BC$$. Incidentally, this can be used to find the largest eigenvalue of $$-\BG^{-1} \BC$$.

The largest eigenvalue of this matrix will dominate these factors, and can cause some numerical trouble. For this reason it is desirable to avoid such explicit moment determination, instead using implicit methods.

The key is to utilize the theorem above, and look instead for an alternate basis $$\{ \Bv_q \}$$ that also spans $$\{ \BM_0, \BM_1, \cdots, \BM_q \}$$.

### Space generate by the moments

Write

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:380}
\BM_q = \BA^q \BR,

where in this case

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:400}
\begin{aligned}
\BA &= – \BG^{-1} \BC \\
\BR &= \BM_0 = -\BG \BB
\end{aligned}

The span of interest is

\label{eqn:multiphysicsL19:420}
\text{span} \{ \BR, \BA \BR, \BA^2 \BR, \cdots, \BA^{q-1} \BR \}.

Such a sequence is called a Krylov subspace. One method to compute such a basis, the Arnoldi process, relies on Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization methods:

Some numerical examples and plots on the class slides.